Our bodies are incredibly adaptive to what you put into it – when you overload it with fats and take away carbohydrates, it will begin to burn ketones as the primary energy source. Optimal ketone levels offer many health, weight loss, physical and mental performance benefits.1There are scientifically-backed studies that show the advantage of a low-carb, ketogenic diet over a low-fat diet. One meta-analysis of low-carbohydrate diets showed a large advantage in weight loss. The New England Journal of Medicine study resulted in almost double the weight loss in a long-term study on ketone inducing diets.
After scouring the literature, he became quite attracted to the “good science” behind the ketogenic hypothesis, so under Dr. Seyfried’s direct supervision, he began the diet. Though the patient seems quite enthusiastic about his response, he admits in his note that with the diet there has been “no progression,” presumably in terms of x-ray studies, and some improvement in the blood studies. He still considers his disease as “incurable.”
Ive been strict keto for over 3 months and have lost 20lbs. I got my test results back yesterday and was shocked to see how my levels had changed: total cholesterol went from 230 to 308!! All the bad went up and all the good went down. But I’ve also heard that it can take a bit longer for cholesterol levels to even out and start going down. Is this true? I don’t want to quit keto because I have another 20lbs to lose, but I don’t want to have a stroke either.
Though she returned to her primary care physician repeatedly, he dismissed her complaints as “nerves,” suggesting only a tranquilizer. Eventually, in 1975 she developed a palpable mass the size of a grapefruit in her pelvis, thought by her doctors – finally taking her seriously – to be an indication of obvious recurrent disease. A chest x-ray at the time revealed multiple nodules in both lungs, consistent with widely metastatic cancer.
Chris: Okay. Thanks, Kelsey, for sending that question in. It’s a really great question, one that’s been on my mind a lot recently, actually, and I’ve been diving into the research on. Most of you probably know that cancer dogma holds that malignancies are caused by DNA mutations inside the nuclei of cells and that these mutations ultimately lead to runaway cellular proliferation, which is the hallmark feature of cancer.

Fortunately, the keto diet has been found to decrease inflammation (which is part of the reason why it can help people who have autoimmune thyroid conditions). [29] However, if you still have high levels of inflammation after following the keto diet, then you may have to address other important variables like your stress levels, sleep quality, and food allergies/sensitivities before your cholesterol levels can rest at healthier levels. (By addressing these variables, you will also decrease your stress levels which may help improve your cholesterol levels even more.)


Here are a few of the most common side effects that I come across when people first start keto. Frequently the issues relate to dehydration or lack of micronutrients (vitamins) in the body. Make sure that you’re drinking enough water (close to a gallon a day) and eating foods with good sources of micronutrients. To read more on micronutrients, click here >

The ketogenic diet is a natural, nontoxic metabolic therapy being studied and utilized for cancer prevention and treatment. It works because cancer cells are dependent upon a constant supply of blood sugar (glucose) to stay alive. Normal cells can make energy from both glucose and ketones (metabolic by-products of burning fat), but most cancer cells can only use glucose. Avoiding carbohydrates (starch and sugar) while enjoying delicious and healthy protein and fats will lower blood glucose and increase blood-ketone levels, resulting in a normal body state called nutritional ketosis. Research has shown that nutritional ketosis starves cancer cells while nourishing normal cells and strengthening total body health.
High-protein ketogenic diet (HPKD): This version of the keto diet is often followed by folks who want to preserve their muscle mass like bodybuilders and older people. Rather than protein making up 20 percent of the diet, here it’s 30 percent. Meanwhile, fat goes down to 65 percent of the diet and carbs stay at 5 percent. (Caution: folks with kidney issues shouldn’t up their protein too much.)
Net carbs is simply total carbs minus fiber and non-digestible sugar alcohols, like erythritol. (This doesn’t apply to high glycemic sugar alcohols, like maltitol.) We don’t have to count fiber and certain sugar alcohols in net carbs, because they either don’t get broken down by our bodies, are not absorbed, or are absorbed but not metabolized. (Read more about sugar alcohols here.)
There is not one “standard” ketogenic diet with a specific ratio of macronutrients (carbohydrates, protein, fat). The ketogenic diet typically reduces total carbohydrate intake to less than 50 grams a day—less than the amount found in a medium plain bagel—and can be as low as 20 grams a day. Generally, popular ketogenic resources suggest an average of 70-80% fat from total daily calories, 5-10% carbohydrate, and 10-20% protein. For a 2000-calorie diet, this translates to about 165 grams fat, 40 grams carbohydrate, and 75 grams protein. The protein amount on the ketogenic diet is kept moderate in comparison with other low-carb high-protein diets, because eating too much protein can prevent ketosis. The amino acids in protein can be converted to glucose, so a ketogenic diet specifies enough protein to preserve lean body mass including muscle, but that will still cause ketosis.
The ketogenic diet also has been used in glycogenosis type V (McArdle disease), which is caused by a defect in the muscle-specific isozyme of glycogen phosphorylase. Glycogen phosphorylase is necessary to break down glycogen into free glucose for use as an energy source in muscles. When the ketogenic diet was applied to a patient with this disorder (presumably providing an alternative means of energy production), the patient’s exercise tolerance improved and there was a trend toward decreased baseline creatine kinase levels [22, Class III].
Throughout this experiment, you should either keep to a standard LCHF ratio (75% fat, 20% protein, 5% carbs) or one with an even higher proportion of fat (such as 80% or 85% fat). On low-calorie days you’d eat less than 1000 calories with the same macro ratios. On high-calorie days, you’d eat about 1000 calories above your maintenance with the same macros.
20•. Marsh EB, Freeman JM, Kossoff EH, et al. The outcome of children with intractable seizures: a 3- to 6-year follow-up of 67 children who remained on the ketogenic diet less than one year. Epilepsia. 2006;47:425–430. These long-term follow-up studies from the large Johns Hopkins series outline seizure-free rates and medication use after the ketogenic diet has been stopped. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

This has been very comforting for me to read as I’ve been on a Keto diet for 8mo, loving my results which were weight loss (initially) but now the sustained clarity & sharpness of mind. I am lean (58kg) and very active. I had a blood test last week just to see where I’m at & my LDL is very high. Of course my doctor wants me to stop Keto but I just feel so great. I’m torn...
This review aimed to investigate the effect of ketogenic diets on seizure control, cognition (e.g. learning, concentration and academic performance in children; learning, concentration and memory in adults) and behaviour. We also investigated the side effects of the diet and the number of participants who dropped out of the studies and the reasons for this.
The total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio is found by dividing your total cholesterol level by your HDL-C, and it is essentially the same thing as an LDL-to-HDL cholesterol ratio since most non-HDL cholesterol is LDL cholesterol [26]. The researchers of the 2003 meta-analysis used this ratio because it is a better cardiovascular risk predictor than total cholesterol levels [25].
Multiple mechanisms of action may explain why the modification of the KD can be effective even without ketosis. Importantly, the KD systemic action can have a broad spectrum of effects that may be beneficial in the treatment of different types of epilepsy and associated comorbidities such as cognition impairment, psychiatric disturbance, and sudden unexplained death.
The most common side effects are constipation that can be supported with some dietary adjustments and laxatives. Other side effects that may occur that are relatively minor and transient include: kidney stones, low sugars, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sleepiness. There are some reports of longer term side effects that may include higher cholesterol, reduced bone health, kidney stones, slower linear growth velocity and abnormal heart rhythm. 

The keto diet works for such a high percentage of people because it targets several key, underlying causes of weight gain — including hormonal imbalances, especially insulin resistance coupled with high blood sugar levels, and the cycle of restricting and “binging” on empty calories due to hunger that so many dieters struggle with. In fact, these are some of the direct benefits of the keto diet.
I’m referring to a diet called the ketogenic diet, and an article that’s been making the rounds since last week entitled “Ketogenic diet beats chemo for almost all cancers, says Dr. Thomas Seyfried.” Of course, when I see a claim such as that, my first reaction is, “Show me the evidence.” My second reaction is, “Who is this guy?” Well, Dr. Seyfried is a professor of biology at Boston College, who’s pretty well published. He’s also working in a field that has gained new respectability over the last five to ten years, namely cancer metabolism, mainly thanks to a rediscovery of what Otto Warburg discovered over 80 years ago. What Warburg discovered was that many tumors rely on glycolysis for their energy even in environments with adequate oxygen for oxidative phosphorylation, which generates the bulk of the chemical energy used by cells. I described this phenomenon in more detail in a post I did four years ago about a drug that looks as though its anticancer properties come from its ability to reverse the Warburg effect.
Another memorable patient written up for the book had been diagnosed with what was thought to be localized endometrial cancer in 1969. After a course of radiation to shrink her large tumor, she underwent hysterectomy, and was told they “got it all.” Over the next few years, however, her health began to deteriorate: she experienced persistent fatigue, malaise, pelvic pain, and weight loss.
The cancer industry is probably the most prosperous business in the United States. In 2014, there will be an estimated 1,665,540 new cancer cases diagnosed and 585,720 cancer deaths in the US. $6 billion of tax-payer funds are cycled through various federal agencies for cancer research, such as the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The NCI states that the medical costs of cancer care are $125 billion, with a projected 39 percent increase to $173 billion by 2020.
Our bodies are incredibly adaptive to what you put into it – when you overload it with fats and take away carbohydrates, it will begin to burn ketones as the primary energy source. Optimal ketone levels offer many health, weight loss, physical and mental performance benefits.1There are scientifically-backed studies that show the advantage of a low-carb, ketogenic diet over a low-fat diet. One meta-analysis of low-carbohydrate diets showed a large advantage in weight loss. The New England Journal of Medicine study resulted in almost double the weight loss in a long-term study on ketone inducing diets.
If you're new to keto, watch out for hidden carbs. Generally, dairy products and nuts are a good way to meet your daily fat intake, but know that some of those items may contain more carbohydrates than you think. For example, yogurt topped with nuts may seem like a great keto-friendly snack, but a 5.3 ounce serving of plain yogurt has 12 grams of carbohydrates. Vanilla flavored yogurt has 24 grams of carbohydrates. Add an ounce of cashews, weighing in at nearly nine grams of carbs, and you’re up to 21 to 33 grams of carbs for that snack, which could knock you out of ketosis. Be sure to read nutrition labels carefully and pay careful attention to serving sizes. Track foods using a keto-specific app like Senza or KetoDiet can help you stay within your recommended daily carb intake.
You want to keep your cheats to none. Be prepared, make sure you’re eating what you need to be satiated (“full”), and make sure you’re satisfied with what you’re eating. If you have to force yourself to eat something, it will never work out in the end. This is just a guideline on how you can eat on a ketogenic diet, so you’re very welcome to change up what kind of foods you eat!
The ketogenic diet is consistently reduced in carbohydrates, adequate in protein, and high in fat which mimics this fasting state and also produce ketones. Ketones are an indicator of an important metabolic change but alone cannot explain the anti-seizure effect. Researchers are studying additional mechanisms of action to better explain why this diet reduces seizures.

Serum cholesterol and triglycerides may increase, especially during the first 6 months. These levels may even out by 6 months, then decline often back to normal values. It is rare to stop the diet due to a cholesterol problem, especially after 1-2 years of use. Adjustments to the diet (e.g., increased protein and polyunsaturated fat) can be made in children with significantly high cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations.


You can make the argument that high cholesterol leads to atherosclerosis because the plaques are created by cholesterol build-up. However, the root cause of the issue is inflammation and arterial scarring in the first place. If you’d have lower CRP, then cholesterol would simply be transported around the body by VLDL and if it’s not needed for nutrition it’d be transited back to the liver by HDL.
Now, in this view, it’s the mitochondria that are particularly to blame for cancer, and there are studies in the ’70s and ’80s that support this. They showed that if you transfer the cytoplasm, which is where the mitochondria is, from a healthy cell into a cell that has the potential to develop cancer, that potential is suppressed, or that tendency to develop cancer is suppressed in that cell. On the other hand, if you transfer the nucleus of a malignant cell into the cytoplasm, which, again, is where the mitochondria is, of a healthy cell, then the tumor potential of that initially malignant cell is inhibited. Both of these lines of evidence suggest that the issue may be with the mitochondria or the cytoplasm of the cell rather than the cell nucleus, which is what the traditional view of cancer is.
High-protein ketogenic diet (HPKD): This version of the keto diet is often followed by folks who want to preserve their muscle mass like bodybuilders and older people. Rather than protein making up 20 percent of the diet, here it’s 30 percent. Meanwhile, fat goes down to 65 percent of the diet and carbs stay at 5 percent. (Caution: folks with kidney issues shouldn’t up their protein too much.)
Multiple mechanisms of action may explain why the modification of the KD can be effective even without ketosis. Importantly, the KD systemic action can have a broad spectrum of effects that may be beneficial in the treatment of different types of epilepsy and associated comorbidities such as cognition impairment, psychiatric disturbance, and sudden unexplained death.

Disclaimer: The content of this website is based on research conducted by Chris Beat Cancer, LLC unless otherwise noted. The information is presented for educational purposes only and is not intended to diagnose or prescribe for any medical or psychological condition, nor to prevent, treat, mitigate or cure such conditions. The information contained herein is not intended to replace a one-to-one relationship with a doctor or qualified healthcare professional. Therefore, this information is not intended as medical advice, but rather a sharing of knowledge and information based on research and experience. Chris Beat Cancer, LLC encourages you to make your own health care decisions based on your judgment and research in partnership with a qualified healthcare professional.
Aside from carb flu, be warned that staying in long-term, continuous ketosis may have drawbacks that may actually undermine your health and longevity. To stay on the safe side, I recommend undergoing a cyclic ketogenic diet. The "metabolic magic" that ketosis brings to the mitochondria actually occurs during the refeeding phase, not during the starvation phase.
A number of patients previously refractory to multiple anticonvulsant medications become seizure-free or maintain a significant reduction in seizure frequency even after the ketogenic diet has been discontinued, suggesting the diet may have disease-modifying effects in some people with epilepsy [19,20•, Class III]. No clinical factors have been identified that predict which patients will benefit most in this regard.
One of the primary culprits of chronic inflammation in our society is a poor diet full of sugars and processed vegetable oils. In fact, blood sugar and measurements of insulin resistance are a much more accurate predictor of heart disease risk. I often look at values such as fasting glucose, HbA1c, and fasting insulin as a means of determining the inflammatory state of someone’s body.
There aren’t any studies on control groups living healthy lifestyles, eating a low carb/whole food/meat diet, that shows an increase in cancer. There are 1000’s of examples of blood work showing improvements in LDL ratios (risk of heart disease) and low/steady blood sugar levels (diabetes prevention/treatment). That is actual science. as far as anecdotal evidence, there are many accounts of vegans/vegetarians that have became extremely ill over time due to lack of complete nutrition. It is also more difficult (takes more planning) to ensure you are getting sufficient amounts of calories since plant based is not calorie dense and it takes larger quantities. Additionally, Fats and animal fats especially play a vital role hormone production as well. Look up Dr. Shawn Baker.

There are several studies indicating that ketogenic diets are safe for a variety of conditions on a short-term basis. A very strict form of the ketogenic diet has been used in epileptic patients longer term (several years) and is considered safe for that purpose. The keto diet recommended on this blog for weight loss and overall health is much less restrictive, including being higher in protein and carbs than a standard ketogenic diet for epilepsy. As the diet grows in popularity, at some point we will have long-term data on people that follow a keto lifestyle for diabetes, weight loss, and other conditions.


Regardless of the efficacy of the KD, most patients discontinue the diet because of its unpalatable and restrictive features. In the last 20 years, new variants of the KD diet have emerged, including the Modified Atkins diet (MAD), a low-glycemic-index diet, which although it has a high fat content, allows more protein and does not restrict calories and fluids. Several studies have shown that the new variants of the KD have a similar efficacy to the CKD (Kossoff et al., 2006; Tonekaboni et al., 2010; Coppola et al., 2011; Miranda et al., 2012; El-Rashidy et al., 2013). As presently understood, the KD is involved in multiple mechanisms responsible for biochemical alterations, including cellular substrates and mediators responsible for neuronal hyperexcitability. However, it is not yet known with certainty whether the success of the KD is due to a single or several mechanisms (Bough and Rho, 2007; Lutas and Yellen, 2013; Rho, 2017; Youngson et al., 2017).
To the surprise of these investigators – at the time no Western scientist believed any human could survive on nothing but meat – this Eskimo diet consisted of virtually 100% animal products, 80% in the form of fat, with much of it saturated, 20% protein, but essentially no carbohydrates. From cradle to grave these traditional Eskimos lived in a state of ketosis.
One notes that the patient who didn’t survive 12 months wasn’t much mentioned; so I assume she didn’t demonstrate any clinical improvement. In any case, this study doesn’t really show anything, other than that a ketogenic diet might decrease glucose uptake in some brain tumors. It’s like a Burzynski case report, in which we have no idea whether the patient did better than expected because of the intervention or because she had less aggressive disease.
Jimmy Moore: One year ago my, I guess this about a year and a half ago now, time flies when you’re having fun … my total cholesterol was over 400. A lot of people, and of course I talked to lipidologists and heart people all the time on my podcasts, and I was throwing the numbers out there and one of the lipidologists “Oh you need the highest dose of Staten drug possible because you’ll not be able to get that down without it.” In writing Cholesterol Clarity, I determined that I had some other things that were raising the cholesterol and it’s not that I have a Staten drug deficiency. It’s that I have something underlined inside of me somewhere that the cholesterol was going to try to take care of.

Epilepsy Ontario is the voice of epilepsy in the province. Since 1956, we have been serving the province as a registered health charity incorporated under the statutes of Ontario as a non-profit and non-governmental organization. We aim to raise public awareness and improve education through publications, conferences, outreach initiatives and our website.

The classic ketogenic diet is not a balanced diet and only contains tiny portions of fresh fruit and vegetables, fortified cereals, and calcium-rich foods. In particular, the B vitamins, calcium, and vitamin D must be artificially supplemented. This is achieved by taking two sugar-free supplements designed for the patient's age: a multivitamin with minerals and calcium with vitamin D.[18] A typical day of food for a child on a 4:1 ratio, 1,500 kcal (6,300 kJ) ketogenic diet comprises three small meals and three small snacks:[28]

I have spent weeks reading and learning about the Keto diet plan, downloading random recipes that my husband might even try, and have been overwhelmed with all the information. I was pleased to find your system and how organized everything seems to be. The only question I have is will I be able to “temporarily suspend” my subscription if I find there are more recipes than I have time to prepare. I want to only do about 3 per week and repeat them as leftovers, since I have very little time after working a 12-hour shift, to do much cooking. Once I “catch up,” I would reinstate my subscription. Is that an option? Looking forward to trying out your program.
A well-formulated ketogenic diet, besides limiting carbohydrates, also limits protein intake moderately to less than 1g/lb body weight, unless individuals are performing heavy exercise involving weight training when the protein intake can be increased to 1.5g/lb body weight. This is to prevent the endogenous production of glucose in the body via gluconeogenesis. However, it does not restrict fat or overall daily calories. People on a ketogenic diet initially experience rapid weight loss up to 10 lbs in 2 weeks or less. This diet has a diuretic effect, and some early weight loss is due to water weight loss followed by a fat loss. Interestingly with this diet plan, lean body muscle is largely spared. As a nutritional ketosis state sustains, hunger pangs subside, and an overall reduction in caloric intake helps to further weight loss.
The keto diet works for such a high percentage of people because it targets several key, underlying causes of weight gain — including hormonal imbalances, especially insulin resistance coupled with high blood sugar levels, and the cycle of restricting and “binging” on empty calories due to hunger that so many dieters struggle with. In fact, these are some of the direct benefits of the keto diet.
The most convincing piece of evidence can be found in a 2003 meta-analysis. In this meta-analysis, researchers compiled the data from sixty trials that quantified the effect that feeding different types of fats to humans had on the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio [25]. But before we look through the results, we must first understand what this ratio is.

Diets aren’t just for weight loss. What, how much, and even when we eat all affect the way our brains work. For people with epilepsy, diet can reduce the likelihood of seizures. Mackenzie Cervenka, a neurologist and director of the Adult Epilepsy Diet Center at Johns Hopkins Hospital, explains what the ketogenic diet is and how it can benefit people with epilepsy.

Excessive LDL particles have been found to be associated with the development of atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart disease. In atherosclerosis, LDL particles are known to end up in damaged artery walls, and connected to an inflammatory response. Over time, cholesterol, calcium, white blood cells and other substances accumulate at the site to form a plaque. Most heart attacks and strokes are caused when a plaque ruptures and forms a clot that blocks arterial blood flow.


The keto diet works for such a high percentage of people because it targets several key, underlying causes of weight gain — including hormonal imbalances, especially insulin resistance coupled with high blood sugar levels, and the cycle of restricting and “binging” on empty calories due to hunger that so many dieters struggle with. In fact, these are some of the direct benefits of the keto diet.
Patients diagnosed with the immune based “blood cancers” like leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma, as well as the sarcomas, a type of connective tissue malignancy, required a lower carb, high animal fat, moderate animal protein diet. Other patients, usually with problems other than cancer, thrived on a more “balanced” diet, incorporating a variety of plant and animal foods.
When in the hospital, glucose levels are checked several times daily and the patient is monitored for signs of symptomatic ketosis (which can be treated with a small quantity of orange juice). Lack of energy and lethargy are common, but disappear within two weeks.[17] The parents attend classes over the first three full days, which cover nutrition, managing the diet, preparing meals, avoiding sugar, and handling illness.[19] The level of parental education and commitment required is higher than with medication.[44] 

This equates to about 20 grams of carbohydrates on a 2000 kcal diet per day – a more stringent application of carbohydrate restriction use than the meta-analysis above. The second group consumed primarily a low-fat diet with 46%, 24%, and 30% energy from respectively from carbohydrate, protein, and fat per day. Both diets contained an equal number of calories.
Teens and young adults who are becoming more independent often find the ketogenic diet too difficult to follow. Dietary options for epilepsy have expanded in recent years to include the modified Atkins diet and the low-glycemic index treatment diet. The latter diet does not necessarily cause ketosis, and may instead curb seizures by lowering glucose levels in the blood and possibly in brain cells.
There are some treatment centers like Care Oncology Clinic in the UK and ChemoThermia Oncology Center in Istanbul that are using ketogenic diet and fasting along with glucose inhibitors and conventional treatment like chemo. They claim to be getting good results, but I don’t know much about these cancer centers above and beyond what I just told you. Note that keto only seems to work with the faster-growing cancers like breast cancer, but not as much with slower-growing cancers like prostate cancer.

Further, these experts believe that DNA mutations, uncontrolled cellular growth, and other hallmarks of cancer are a consequence, not the cause, of impaired energy metabolism. They suggest that the poor rate of success in the “War on Cancer” has to do with mainstream medicine’s failure to recognize mitochondrial dysfunction as the underlying cause of cancer.
"The message is not that children with [uncontrollable] seizures should not be on this diet, because it can be remarkably effective and most children only stay on it for a few years," Kwiterovich tells WebMD. "But our findings suggest the distinct possibility that anyone who eats a very high-fat diet may be setting themselves up for later [blood vessel] disease."
For most children with epilepsy, medications are the primary treatment modality and provide good seizure control in over half of the children. However, more than 25 percent of children with epilepsy have either difficult-to-control seizures despite medications or suffer treatment-limiting side effects. Only a limited number of these children are candidates for surgical therapy to cure their epilepsy and their caregivers look for other options. Neurostimulation (vagus nerve stimulation or VNS) is one choice. Dietary therapy is another.
May this letter find you and your loved ones happy and healthy for without you I would not be in such an improved state of physical health? It is not often I get to put pencil to paper for not only could I not concentrate due to opiate pharmaceuticals (couldn't express oneself due to lack of cognitive thinking) but the pain, inability to get comfortable due to lymphodemia and anxiety from stress (from lack of cash flow for food, bills, medicines plus the high expense of bandages & ointments) have prevented me from making contact but ....still after this prolonged period of time, I feel it necessary to write personally to mention just how dramatically you changed the world my two children and I live in. My sister Casey Lee Smith, arrived 6 months ago from the USA to run my household and it is through "Phoenix Tears" website she was able to make contact with you and learn all about the many wondrous benefits of medicinal Cannabis oil. When the treatment arrived, I was overwhelmed for I am a single Mother and your generosity brought tears to my eyes (even now it is hard to fight tears as I write) It has been rough to say the least. Feeling helpless, overly tired and frustrated by the lack of qualified physicians in my local town. I became depressed. My ex-husband felt he should prepare the kids for my untimely death. The location of my cancer spread throughout my left quadrant into my lymph and into the brain. I became bed ridden and lost hope. I will lose my house shortly but now i know it won't be my life. So, "THANK YOU" for the gracious gift and know you are loved! Sending love to you forever and always.
The ketogenic diet also has been used in glycogenosis type V (McArdle disease), which is caused by a defect in the muscle-specific isozyme of glycogen phosphorylase. Glycogen phosphorylase is necessary to break down glycogen into free glucose for use as an energy source in muscles. When the ketogenic diet was applied to a patient with this disorder (presumably providing an alternative means of energy production), the patient’s exercise tolerance improved and there was a trend toward decreased baseline creatine kinase levels [22, Class III].
Then there are some more experimental drugs that restrict the availability of glucose via inhibition of glycolysis and other processes. One of those drugs is called 2-DG, and that’s shown quite a bit of promise, so there’s not a lot of research on it yet, and then there’s an older drug named DCA, which also limits the availability of glucose. That has shown some promise, although it has known toxicity and side effects. It may not be a good choice for that reason.
The ketogenic diet for epilepsy (KDE) was developed in the 1920s by Dr. Hugh Conklin in Michigan. But once effective medications were developed, the diet was used less frequently. It has regained recognition and study and is now a standard backup plan for children whose epilepsy symptoms are difficult to control with medication. With over 300,000 children in the U.S. with seizure disorders, this has become an important addition to the arsenal of treatments for epilepsy. Researchers are beginning to see how it might help adults and people with a variety of neurologic disorders.
Now a report, appearing several weeks ago in the journal Neurology, reveals that in fact, a ketogenic diet is also profoundly helpful in adults as well in terms of treating epilepsy. This research, published by investigators in Maryland, found that there was at least a 50% reduction in seizures in 32% of patients treated with a ketogenic diet as well as in 29% of patients who went on a modified Atkins diet. In fact, 9% of those placed on the ketogenic diet and 5% of those placed on the modified Atkins diet had a greater than 90% reduction in the frequency of their epileptic seizures. These diets were designed such that the bulk of calories, between 67% and 75%, came from fat. The study revealed that “the anticonvulsant effect occurs quickly with both diets, within days to weeks.” Interestingly, the most common side effect was weight-loss which the office indicated “maybe advantageous inpatients with obesity.”
There are other studies, but little or nothing in the way of randomized clinical trials. For instance, a recent retrospective study of 53 patients, of whom only six followed a ketogenic diet while being treated for GBM, concluded that the diet was safe, but no suggestion of efficacy was noted. More recently, a German group examined the effect of a ketogenic diet on 16 patients with advanced cancer of various types who had exhausted all therapeutic options. The treatment didn’t result in any serious side effects, although subjects found it very difficult to maintain the diet, particularly in the context of family life. Only five were able to complete the three month treatment period, and it was reported that these five didn’t have progression while on the diet. Of the remaining 11, two died early, one was unable to tolerate the diet and dropped out very quickly, two dropped out for personal reasons, one couldn’t continue the diet for more than a month and three had disease progression within less than 2 months of starting the diet and one dropped out to resume chemotherapy. As a whole, this study was well-nigh uninterpretable due to the different kinds of cancer, other than to conclude that less than 50% of patients with advanced cancer could adhere to the diet, and that those who could generally had no significant side effects. Of course, it’s unclear whether the diet helped the five who could adhere to it or whether those who adhered to it could do so because they had more indolent, less aggressive disease.
Gluconeogenesis is the endogenous production of glucose in the body, especially in the liver primarily from lactic acid, glycerol, and the amino acids alanine and glutamine. When glucose availability drops further, the endogenous production of glucose is not able to keep up with the needs of the body and ketogenesis begins in order to provide an alternate source of energy in the form of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies replace glucose as a primary source of energy. During ketogenesis due to low blood glucose feedback, stimulus for insulin secretion is also low, which sharply reduces the stimulus for fat and glucose storage. Other hormonal changes may contribute to the increased breakdown of fats that result in fatty acids. Fatty acids are metabolized to acetoacetate which is later converted to beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone. These are the basic ketone bodies that accumulate in the body as a ketogenic diet is sustained. This metabolic state is referred to as "nutritional ketosis." As long as the body is deprived of carbohydrates, metabolism remains in the ketotic state. The nutritional ketosis state is considered quite safe, as ketone bodies are produced in small concentrations without any alterations in blood pH. It greatly differs from ketoacidosis, a life-threatening condition where ketone bodies are produced in extremely larger concentrations, altering blood ph to acidotic a state.
“This is an important area of research that has the potential to significantly improve treatment responses,” said AICR’s Director of Research Nigel Brockton, Ph.D. “There are plausible mechanisms by which the ketogenic diet could help make treatment more effective, but, as we see many times, plausibility alone is not enough; it has to be tested. That’s why we are supporting research in this area.”
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