For someone who has cancer and a big battle ahead, I would recommend Miriam Kalamian's book for getting started, and for tracking what you eat. Then, The Metabolic Approach to Cancer by Nasha WInters, doctor of Naturopathy, is really good - 350 pages from her experience coaching cancer patients. These two women come from a place of their own life-and-death struggles with Keto diet and cancer and it shows in the intensity of their studies. I go back to these two books again and again. They are fine works and for them, I'd pay double what I did if I had to.
A more recent clinical trial comparing a ketogenic diet (33.5% protein, 56% fat, 9.6% carbohydrate) to a low-fat diet (22% protein, 25% fat,55.7% carbohydrate) among 55 obese adults, showed that the ketogenic diet resulted in improved cholesterol levels compared to the low-fat diet. More specifically, the group following the ketogenic diet reported higher increases in HDL cholesterol and higher decreases in triglyceride levels compared to the control group (15).

Neither is the American College for Advancement in Medicine (ACAM), which bills itself as the “voice of integrative medicine,” where he’s given a major talk, the sort of organization a legitimate scientist wants to associate himself with if he wants to be taken seriously. Don’t believe me? Just peruse the ACAM website, where you will find lots of chelation therapy, including a program to “certify” in chelation therapy and detoxification, as well as other quackery. There’s a good reason that ACAM has appeared in many SBM posts throughout the years, and not in a favorable light. I emphasize again, this is not an organization with which a scientist who wishes to be taken seriously by oncologists associates himself.

• Pancreatic insufficiency — Pancreatic insufficiency is a condition where your pancreas does not produce enough enzymes to help break down and absorb nutrients in your digestive tract. If you have an enzyme deficiency, I suggest having it treated first before embarking on a ketogenic diet, because your digestive system will have a hard time absorbing dietary fats.

Alice Ottoboni aspirin cancer Charles Serhan cholesterol DHA diabetes diet Ellen Davis EPA epidemiology Eric Westman exercise faces of keto Fat Chance Fish Oil Fred Ottoboni fructose Gary Taubes glycemic index glycemic load Jeff Volek Jimmy Moore ketones ketosis Lyle McDonald Mathieu Lalonde Michael Eades modern nutritional diseases news Nina Teicholz Omega-3 opinion paleo Peter Attia physiological insulin resistance research Richard Bernstein Robb Wolf Robert Lustig skinny on obesity Stephen Phinney sugar Thomas Seyfried video
Hi. Glad to see my bad cholesterol is not the only one that’s gone up. The day before I started Keto my bad cholesterol was 93 and my “good” was 107. A month later, I got my blood taken again and my bad had increased to 137 but my good thankfully had only decreased by 2, to 105. The Dr. said that the good news about that was that the “good” cholesterol was the one that protected the heart so nothing needed to be done, as yet. I also have no intention of taking cholesterol meds. Want to go to my grave with as few meds as possible. However, yes, my plan has been to increase eating more “healthy” fats, like Extra Virgin Olive Oil, avacadoes (one a day is prime) and nuts like manademias (which are considered the “wonder nut”). I still eat bacon, butter and eggs but am hoping the increase in healthy fats will show good results in the cholesterol levels. We’ll see.
Kossoff et al. (2018) proposed that dietary therapy should be considered earlier as an option for treatment of intractable epilepsy, because of its proven efficacy, the poor chance of improvement with further anticonvulsant administration, and the possibility of using the MAD (Kossoff et al., 2006) and low-glycemic-index treatment (LGIT) (Pfeifer and Thiele, 2005), which are easier to manage in adults.

Its hard to find any information about hyper responders, even harder for me as my total cholestorl levels increased extremely after I went on the keto diet, from an already high 5mmol/dL to extremely high (14mmol/dL or 538mg) which is unheard of, even in the many hyper responder cases I've studied. But my HDL increased to 2.7mmol and my trigicerides stayed the same at good 0.9. Nobody 've seen has such a high total cholestrol. Even as i research how cholestrol doesn't have much link to heart disease mortality, there's no research on anything as high as my case.
Your current cholesterol levels l is higher than I would personally feel comfortable with. I would consider making a few dietary changes (i.e., increasing fiber and net carbs, reducing saturated fat, and increasing protein), especially given your lack of improved cognition and decreased ability to work out. I wish you the best of luck going forward. - Franziska 

When you eat less than 50 grams of carbs a day, your body eventually runs out of fuel (blood sugar) it can use quickly. This typically takes 3 to 4 days. Then you’ll start to break down protein and fat for energy, which can make you lose weight. This is called ketosis. It's important to note that the ketogenic diet is a short term diet that's focussed on weight loss rather than the pursuit of health benefits. 
That's why I co-wrote the "Fat for Fuel Ketogenic Cookbook" alongside renowned Australian celebrity chef Pete Evans. This book combines research-backed medical advice with delicious, kitchen-tested recipes that will help make shifting to fat-burning much easier. Whether you're just a budding cook or a master chef, there's a delicious meal waiting to be prepared that'll take your health to the next level.
Jimmy Moore: Just removing the infections that were in the mouth and the mercury amalgam poisoning that was probably happening. Was raising my cholesterol because it was trying to be that fire fighter to put out the fire. Of course it never showed up in my inflammation because the cholesterol was taking care of it, had I been taking a Staten drug Leanne, I would have been at great risk. I would have been in really bad shape. Anyway, I thought okay that was maybe an anomaly, that was in October. Let me have it run again, I had it run again last month … 289 again. Not a fluke, and that’s one of the things we did in Cholesterol Clarity, was you said, “why aren’t doctors asking why the cholesterol is high?” All they know is that it’s high. Therefore you have a Staten deficiency and please take this drug.
We’re also going to keep it simple here. Most of the time, it’ll be salad and meat, slathered in high fat dressings and calling it a day. We don’t want to get too rowdy here. You can use leftover meat from previous nights or use easy accessible canned chicken/fish. If you do use canned meats, try to read the labels and get the one that uses the least (or no) additives!
The ketogenic diet also may protect against the deposition of amyloid. Van der Auwera et al. [41] studied the ketogenic diet’s effects on AD using a transgenic mouse model of AD in which mice express a mutated human amyloid precursor protein gene in postmitotic neurons. These mice develop significant soluble Aβ by 3 months of age, and then brain plaques by 12 to 14 months. They also demonstrate behavioral deficits in tests of object recognition. In their study, 16 mice were fed a regular diet until 3 months of age, at which point 8 mice were switched to the ketogenic diet, without restriction on intake. After about 40 days on the diet, the animals fed the ketogenic diet had 25% less soluble Aβ in their brains. However, they did not perform any differently on tests of cognitive function than the mice fed a standard diet. The prevailing paradigm that reductions in Aβ deposition may delay progression in AD makes these findings particularly intriguing; perhaps a longer period on the ketogenic diet would reveal some behavioral differences between the two groups of mice.
Over half of children who go on the diet have at least a 50% reduction in the number of their seizures. It can start to help after just one week, but more often it can take a few weeks up to several months to judge whether it will be effective. If the diet successfully controls seizures, it may be continued for several years under the supervision of the child's health care team. Many children on the ketogenic diet continue to take seizure medications but on average they require one less medication and often the dosage of remaining ones is lowered.

The present study shows the beneficial effects of a long-term ketogenic diet. It significantly reduced the body weight and body mass index of the patients. Furthermore, it decreased the level of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and blood glucose, and increased the level of HDL cholesterol. Administering a ketogenic diet for a relatively longer period of time did not produce any significant side effects in the patients. Therefore, the present study confirms that it is safe to use a ketogenic diet for a longer period of time than previously demonstrated.
We’re going full on fats with breakfast, just like we did last week. This time we’ll double the amount of ketoproof coffee (or tea) we drink, meaning we double the amount of coconut oil, butter, and heavy cream. It should come to quite a lot of calories, and should definitely keep us full all the way to dinner. Remember to continue drinking water like a fiend to make sure you’re staying hydrated. 

Once the body is adapted to ketosis, constipation and/or diarrhea are the most commonly reported side effects along with increased urination. Continuing to keep your mineral intake high and ensuring adequate water and fiber intake will help to counter these effects. People in ketosis may also notice a sweet or fruity odor on their breath, which is the result of increased production of the ketone acetone, which is a very volatile compound that is eliminated mainly through respiration in the lungs. 50
A study of 89 obese adults who were placed on a two-phase diet regimen (6 months of a very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and 6 months of a reintroduction phase on a normal calorie Mediterranean diet) showed a significant mean 10% weight loss with no weight regain at one year. The ketogenic diet provided about 980 calories with 12% carbohydrate, 36% protein, and 52% fat, while the Mediterranean diet provided about 1800 calories with 58% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 27% fat. Eighty-eight percent of the participants were compliant with the entire regimen. [12] It is noted that the ketogenic diet used in this study was lower in fat and slightly higher in carbohydrate and protein than the average ketogenic diet that provides 70% or greater calories from fat and less than 20% protein.
I wanted to put it out there that I made this meal plan specifically with women in mind. I took an average of about 150 women and what their macros were. The end result was 1600 calories – broken down into 136g of fat, 74g of protein, and 20g net carbs a day. This is all built around a sedentary lifestyle, like most of us live. If you need to increase or decrease calories, you will need to do that on your own terms.
Can your body handle higher amounts of dietary fat? (To make this process easier, I recommend my patients gradually increase their fat intake. Your digestive enzymes need time to ramp up to be able to handle the higher fat content in your digestive tract, or it can cause unpleasant gas, bloating, and diarrhea.) Remember: If the thought of eating higher-fat foods like steak or avocado doesn’t appeal to you, keto probably isn't for you.
The ketogenic diet appears to enhance mitochondrial function via a number of potential pathways. Given the important role of mitochondrial dysfunction in many neurodegenerative diseases, it is important to outline potential mechanisms of apparent disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet. It is unclear whether there is something specific or direct about the ketogenic diet (ie, provision of ketone bodies or fatty acids) or, perhaps more importantly, the metabolic changes it induces.
Some years ago, a patient of mine, a professor at a well-known university, became interested in oxygenation therapies for cancer, used widely in the Mexican Clinics. These “oxygen” treatments were an offshoot of Dr. Warburg’s work, i.e., that cancer cells as obligatory anaerobes can synthesize needed energy supplies only via glycolysis. Therefore, the theory goes, in the presence of oxygen, particularly ozone, a form of hyped up oxygen, cancers cells, unlike normal cells, will be poisoned.
Experimental studies in an animal model showed that in rats exposed to KD there was no change in synaptic plasticity, using paired-pulse modulation and long-term potentiation (Thio et al., 2010). Similarly, Likhodii et al. (2003) did not detect any anticonvulsant effects in either ketone body (Likhodii et al., 2003). In spontaneously epileptic Kcna1-null mice, KB supplementation resulted in attenuation of electrographic seizure-like events (Kim et al., 2015). These authors also observed an inhibitory effect of KB on mitochondrial permeability transition related to apoptotic and necrotic death. Moreover, in experimental models, acetoacetate exerted a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant effect (Rho et al., 2002). In another study, Rho (2017) described a relationship among KB, neurotransmitter release and ATP-sensitive potassium channels (Rho, 2017). Similarly, to these studies, injection of KB led to the reduction of seizure susceptibility (Gasior et al., 2008). Ma et al. (2007) found a decrease of the spontaneous firing rate in sections of mouse tissue, which was eliminated in the absence of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP). In addition, KB can exert a direct inhibitory effect on the vesicular glutamate transport (Juge et al., 2010). It is possible that these divergent results are related to the different concentrations of KB used in these studies and the diverse seizure thresholds of the animal models. These conflicting results can be also explained by differences in diet composition.
Medications may be tapered and discontinued on an individual basis because one of the most common parental reasons for starting the diet is anticonvulsant reduction. However, not all children are able to come off medications. Some child neurologists tell families that the diet and medications are often a “partnership” in seizure control . Children should be seen in clinic every 3 months for the first year, with more frequent visits for infants and medically fragile patients.
There are several medical studies — such as two conducted by the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center for the University of Iowa, and the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, for example — that show the ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for cancer and other serious health problems. (12)
So why the hate for meat you might ask?? I’ll give you 2 things to ponder that are observations at best. 1) Sugar, and all the tasty frakenfoods we make with it, make up a multi billion dollar food industry. 2) there is an anti-meat morality sentiment/culture that has grown and condemning meat “saves the animals” —-If you look at who funds the studies that are quick to point a finger at meat for all the diseases in modern society (even though its been our primary source of nutrition forever and doesn’t explain the increase in disease from non existent to probable), you’ll usually find that the “research” was funded by someone tied into the food industry or the animal rights industry.

A ketogenic diet derives approximately 90% of dietary calories from fat, 8% from protein, and just 2% from carbohydrates.1 In comparison, the standard American diet derives 35%, 15%, and 50% of calories from fat, protein, and carbohydrates, respectively. Although it is rising in popularity, the ketogenic diet is not a new dietary intervention. It is an established nutritional treatment approach — first developed in the 1920s — for patients who have epilepsy that is not well controlled with antiepileptic agents. The keto diet later remerged as an acceptable intervention in the 1990s.

Aggressive tumors typically demonstrate a high glycolytic rate, which results in resistance to radiation therapy and cancer progression via several molecular and physiologic mechanisms. Intriguingly, many of these mechanisms utilize the same molecular pathways that are altered through calorie and/or carbohydrate restriction. Furthermore, poorer prognosis in cancer patients who display a glycolytic phenotype characterized by metabolic alterations, such as obesity and diabetes, is now well established, providing another link between metabolic pathways and cancer progression. We review the possible roles for calorie restriction (CR) and very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KDs) in modulating the five R’s of radiotherapy to improve the therapeutic window between tumor control and normal tissue complication probability. Important mechanisms we discuss include (1) improved DNA repair in normal, but not tumor cells; (2) inhibition of tumor cell repopulation through modulation of the PI3K–Akt–mTORC1 pathway downstream of insulin and IGF1; (3) redistribution of normal cells into more radioresistant phases of the cell cycle; (4) normalization of the tumor vasculature by targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α downstream of the PI3K–Akt–mTOR pathway; (5) increasing the intrinsic radioresistance of normal cells through ketone bodies but decreasing that of tumor cells by targeting glycolysis. These mechanisms are discussed in the framework of animal and human studies, taking into account the commonalities and differences between CR and KDs. We conclude that CR and KDs may act synergistically with radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer patients and provide some guidelines for implementing these dietary interventions into clinical practice.

Dr. Seyfried does include a chapter toward the book’s end entitled “Case Studies and Personal Experiences in using the Ketogenic Diet for Cancer Management.” Here, Dr. Seyfried provides a description of a pilot study, written by the investigators themselves, discussing the use of the ketogenic diet in children with inoperable brain cancer. However, the authors admit the study was intended only to evaluate the diet’s tolerability and effect on glucose metabolism as determined by PET scanning, not treatment benefit or survival.

Variations on the Johns Hopkins protocol are common. The initiation can be performed using outpatient clinics rather than requiring a stay in hospital. Often, no initial fast is used (fasting increases the risk of acidosis, hypoglycaemia, and weight loss). Rather than increasing meal sizes over the three-day initiation, some institutions maintain meal size, but alter the ketogenic ratio from 2:1 to 4:1.[9]
A: The most common ways to track your carbs is through MyFitnessPal and their mobile app. You cannot track net carbs on the app, although you can track your total carb intake and your total fiber intake. To get your net carbs, just subtract your total fiber intake from your total carb intake. I have written an article on How to Track Carbs on MyFitnessPal.
The ketogenic diet has been studied in at least 14 rodent animal models of seizures. It is protective in many of these models and has a different protection profile than any known anticonvulsant. Conversely, fenofibrate, not used clinically as an antiepileptic, exhibits experimental anticonvulsant properties in adult rats comparable to the ketogenic diet.[58] This, together with studies showing its efficacy in patients who have failed to achieve seizure control on half a dozen drugs, suggests a unique mechanism of action.[56]
We’re going full on fats with breakfast, just like we did last week. This time we’ll double the amount of ketoproof coffee (or tea) we drink, meaning we double the amount of coconut oil, butter, and heavy cream. It should come to quite a lot of calories, and should definitely keep us full all the way to dinner. Remember to continue drinking water like a fiend to make sure you’re staying hydrated.

The good news, however, is that following a well-formulated ketogenic diet should help increase HDL while lowering triglyceride levels. LDL will likely remain the same or potentially increase in order to efficiently transport triglycerides to cells to metabolize for energy. Again, LDL will likely become more of the pattern A type which is a highly beneficial shift.

More specifically, subjects in the lowest third of carbohydrate consumption had an HDL concentration of 1.21 mmol/L while subjects in the highest third had HDL concentration of 1.08 mmol/L. [13] According to the authors, “every 100-g/d increment of carbohydrate (approximately the difference between the top and bottom tertiles) was associated with 0.15-mmol/L less of HDL.” [13]

The most convincing piece of evidence can be found in a 2003 meta-analysis. In this meta-analysis, researchers compiled the data from sixty trials that quantified the effect that feeding different types of fats to humans had on the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio [25]. But before we look through the results, we must first understand what this ratio is.
Available research on the ketogenic diet for weight loss is still limited. Most of the studies so far have had a small number of participants, were short-term (12 weeks or less), and did not include control groups. A ketogenic diet has been shown to provide short-term benefits in some people including weight loss and improvements in total cholesterol, blood sugar, and blood pressure. However, these effects after one year when compared with the effects of conventional weight loss diets are not significantly different. [10]
The Keto diet emphasizes weight loss through fat-burning. The goal is to quickly lose weight and ultimately feel fuller with fewer cravings, while boosting your mood, mental focus and energy. According to Keto proponents, by slashing the carbs you consume and instead filling up on fats, you safely enter a state of ketosis. That’s when the body breaks down both dietary and stored body fat into substances called ketones. Your fat-burning system now relies mainly on fat – instead of sugar – for energy. While similar in some ways to familiar low-carb diets, the Keto diet’s extreme carb restrictions – about 20 net carbs a day or less, depending on the version – and the deliberate shift into ketosis are what set this increasingly popular diet apart.

My latest blood work showed great HDL, VLDL, my LDL is just a bit high and my doc is saying we should do something about it. I don’t want to go on cholesterol meds they gave me leg cramps and other side effects I didn’t like. I think if he lets me give it more time that number could come down as well. I’ve lost 23lbs since January when I started Keto, my sugars are back to normal all other blood work is great! I’m going to try to add more of the avocado, coconut and olive oil and see what happens.
The traditional Atkins’ Diet was certainly high fat, in the range of 70% or more, nearly all from animal sources, and with minimal dietary carbs, less than 10%. Dr. Atkins, famed for his all-encompassing emphasis on ketosis during his early years as a diet doctor, insisted his patients routinely check the levels of ketone bodies in their urine several times a day, using special “ketone strips.”
Solomon L. Moshe, MD. Professor of Neurology, Neuroscience and Pediatrics, Director of Clinical Neurophysiology and Child Neurology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York; past president of the American Epilepsy Society. William R. Turk, MD. Division Chief, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, The Nemours Children's Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida.
Since this is my full-time job, donations really help me keep afloat and allow me to post as much to the website as I do. While I do really appreciate any donation you want to give, you can enter $0 in the amount given to download it for free! I’ve added in $5 as the suggested price. I think that’s a very fair price considering other websites are charging in the hundreds of dollars and I’ve seen what they are like on the inside.
To get the most benefit from the Keto diet, you should stay physically active. You might need to take it easier during the early ketosis period, especially if you feel fatigued or lightheaded. Walking, running, doing aerobics, weightlifting, training with kettlebells or whatever workout you prefer will boost your energy further. You can find books and online resources on how to adapt Keto meals or snacks for athletic training.
A high carbohydrate intake can exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) by feeding opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria in the gut. (29) These microbes ferment dietary carbohydrates, producing gases that increase intraabdominal pressure, a driving force behind acid reflux and GERD. The gas manufactured by these bacteria also contributes to bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea in IBS.
In some ways, it’s similar to the Atkins diet, which similarly boosts the body’s fat-burning abilities through eating only low-carb foods, along with getting rid of foods high in carbs and sugar. Removing glucose from carbohydrate foods will cause the body to burn fat for energy instead. The major differences between the classic keto and the Atkins diet is the former emphasizes healthier keto fats, less overall protein and no processed meat (such as bacon) while having more research to back up its efficacy.
In this way, stem cells allow complex life to exist and continue, providing tissue replacements as needed, appropriate for the tissue in which they live. That is, liver stem cells will create new liver cells as needed, bone marrow stem cells will create new bone marrow clones as required, intestinal stem cells will form, as necessary, intestinal lining cells. In this way, the developmental capacity of stem cells seems to be governed by the local environment.
The first modern study of fasting as a treatment for epilepsy was in France in 1911.[12] Twenty epilepsy patients of all ages were "detoxified" by consuming a low-calorie vegetarian diet, combined with periods of fasting and purging. Two benefited enormously, but most failed to maintain compliance with the imposed restrictions. The diet improved the patients' mental capabilities, in contrast to their medication, potassium bromide, which dulled the mind.[13]

Initial studies indicate that the ketogenic diet appears effective in other metabolic conditions, including phosphofructokinase deficiency and glycogenosis type V (McArdle disease). It appears to function in these disorders by providing an alternative fuel source. A growing body of literature suggests the ketogenic diet may be beneficial in certain neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In these disorders, the ketogenic diet appears to be neuroprotective, promoting enhanced mitochondrial function and rescuing adenosine triphosphate production.
The ketogenic diet may have a role in treating disorders of cellular proliferation, especially cancer. Just as chemotherapy selectively targets tumors based on differences in the way they divide compared with normal cells, investigators have proposed targeting tumors on the basis of differences in their metabolism. Normal tissue can adapt readily to using ketones (instead of glucose) as a substrate, but malignant cells probably do not have the same degree of metabolic flexibility [23]. One case report in 1995 [24, Class III] described the use of the ketogenic diet in two girls with advanced astrocytomas, based on the idea that brain tumors are less able than healthy brain tissue to use ketones as an energy source. In this report, PET studies demonstrated a 20% reduction in glucose uptake by the tumors following the initiation of the ketogenic diet. One of the patients actually showed improvement during the course of the study and has continued to be well, without evidence of tumor progression (T. Seyfried, personal communication, 2008).
For an estimated 25 to 30% of people – whether weight loss occurs or not – LDL cholesterol goes up significantly in response to very-low-carb diets, sometimes by 200% or more. Many of these folks seem to belong to a group that Dave Feldman at Cholesterol Code refers to as lean mass hyper-responders (LMHRs). These often healthy people are sometimes shocked to discover that their LDL cholesterol has soared above 200 mg/dL (5.2 mmol/L) after going keto.
As I ponder this enthusiasm, I have to think that perhaps I am just a little slower, or more cautious, than most. The day after I first met Dr. Kelley in New York in July 1981, I was on a plane to Dallas to begin my review of Kelley’s charts. As previously discussed, I quickly found among Kelley’s records case after case of appropriately diagnosed poor-prognosis and/or terminal cancer, patients alive five, ten, even 15 years later, with no possible explanation for such survival other than Kelley’s odd nutritional treatment.
It is possible to discuss two aspects of the diet: known or “direct” properties (high ketone-body levels, high fat, and restriction of calories from carbohydrate) and potential indirect effects (eg, effects on neurotransmitters, ion channels, or mitochondrial biogenesis) (Table 2). Ketone bodies provide alternative substrates for use in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and enhance mitochondrial function (evidenced by increased ATP production and decreased effects of reactive oxygen species). Fatty acids and calorie restriction may have beneficial effects by themselves. The potential indirect effects have been studied in epilepsy but have not been investigated to the same degree in other illnesses. Formal studies of the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy should serve as a model for future clinical investigations in other diseases [12••].
The most common side effects are constipation that can be supported with some dietary adjustments and laxatives. Other side effects that may occur that are relatively minor and transient include: kidney stones, low sugars, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sleepiness. There are some reports of longer term side effects that may include higher cholesterol, reduced bone health, kidney stones, slower linear growth velocity and abnormal heart rhythm.