While KD and MAD have demonstrated efficacy in reducing the extent and degree of seizures in epileptic patients, the dietary approaches have been tied to risk of adverse events in both adults and children, although most are treatable and are nearly all  preventable. Adverse effects include constipation, low blood sugar, and gastrointestinal reflux.5,6 Other side effects, such as kidney stones and high cholesterol, can often be improved with supplements or dietary changes.1 These also tend to improve over the long term. Kossoff and colleagues found that both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol normalized within a year of treatment after initial increases during the first three months of MAD.5

Practitioners from hospitals both in the U.S. and abroad who wish to start a ketogenic diet center at their institutions can participate in one of our 1- or 2-week training sessions for a fee. The training covers both the ketogenic and modified Atkins diets. Professionals affiliated with centers already using ketogenic diet programs are welcome to attend our monthly ketogenic diet follow-up clinics.
All trials applied an intention‐to‐treat analysis with varied randomisation methods. The 11 studies recruited 778 patients; 712 children and adolescents and 66 adults. We assessed all 11 studies to be at low to unclear risk of bias for the following domains: random sequence generation, allocation concealment and selective reporting. For the other domains (blinding, incomplete outcome data, other bias) assessments were varied (low, unclear and high risk of bias). We could not conduct a meta‐analysis due to the heterogeneity of the studies and the quality of the evidence was low to very low (GRADE ratings).
The ketogenic diet also may function in a neuroprotective fashion in AD. In this progressive dementia, extracellular plaques containing amyloid protein are thought to be central to the pathogenesis of the disease. β-Hydroxybutyrate protects against the toxicity directly induced by the addition of fragments of amyloid-β (Aβ)1-42 in cultured hippocampal neurons [37]. The ketogenic diet also may protect against the deposition of amyloid. One theory of how the ketogenic diet may affect AD is that ketone bodies allow the cell to overcome amyloid-induced PDH dysfunction [37].
Normal dietary fat contains mostly long-chain triglycerides (LCTs). Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are more ketogenic than LCTs because they generate more ketones per unit of energy when metabolised. Their use allows for a diet with a lower proportion of fat and a greater proportion of protein and carbohydrate,[18] leading to more food choices and larger portion sizes.[4] The original MCT diet developed by Peter Huttenlocher in the 1970s derived 60% of its calories from MCT oil.[15] Consuming that quantity of MCT oil caused abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting in some children. A figure of 45% is regarded as a balance between achieving good ketosis and minimising gastrointestinal complaints. The classical and modified MCT ketogenic diets are equally effective and differences in tolerability are not statistically significant.[9] The MCT diet is less popular in the United States; MCT oil is more expensive than other dietary fats and is not covered by insurance companies.[18]
Another mouse study cited by Seyfried is one in which dietary restriction was reported to promote vessel maturation in a mouse astrocytoma model. Given that tumor angiogenesis is one of my scientific interests and I have a fair number of publications on the topic, I was interested. Unfortunately, I ended up being disappointed. This was another syngeneic model (i.e., a mouse tumor implanted in mice of the same strain from which the tumor was isolated as a cell line, like the one discussed above). Although it showed increased tumor vessel maturation (which is one mechanism by which inhibitors of angiogenesis work), I wasn’t quite convinced, because there was a distinct lack of quantification of the phenomenon, and the microscopy appears not to have been blinded, something that’s critical to avoid unconscious bias in the results. It’s not surprising that this result, which, if more convincing evidence had been obtained, could easily have appeared in Cancer Research, was published in a low tier journal. It’s an OK study, but not fantastic. Certainly it didn’t lead me to smacking myself in forehead and saying, “Of course!”
Medications may be tapered and discontinued on an individual basis because one of the most common parental reasons for starting the diet is anticonvulsant reduction. However, not all children are able to come off medications. Some child neurologists tell families that the diet and medications are often a “partnership” in seizure control . Children should be seen in clinic every 3 months for the first year, with more frequent visits for infants and medically fragile patients.
Leanne: Yeah, that believed in coconut from the very beginning and they didn’t go on this campaign of ridding it from the earth. I’m totally pro coconut oil and saturated fat. It’s been so great chatting with you about this cholesterol piece. I hope that a lot of our listeners, watchers, readers are going to benefit from the information that you’ve shared. If they want to know more about you Cholesterol Clarity is awesome. Keto Clarity is great. Your podcast, just download every single podcast Jimmy’s ever made. It will keep you busy for the next two years.
As the authors write, “the protocol was not designed to reverse tumor growth or treat specific types of cancer.” The researchers also acknowledge the patient numbers were too small to allow for meaningful statistical evaluation, even for the avowed purposes. Overall, the discussion centers on the practicalities of implementing the diet and the results of the PET scans.
In the mid-1990s, Hollywood producer Jim Abrahams, whose son's severe epilepsy was effectively controlled by the diet, created the Charlie Foundation to promote it. Publicity included an appearance on NBC's Dateline programme and ...First Do No Harm (1997), a made-for-television film starring Meryl Streep. The foundation sponsored a multicentre research study, the results of which—announced in 1996—marked the beginning of renewed scientific interest in the diet.[1]
Overall, 12 studies including 1257 patients examined the impact of a VLCKD on HDL cholesterol. When assessing the data, the individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieved an average increase in HDL of 0.12 mmol/L. This was double the average increase in HDL of the low-fat dieters who achieved an average increase in HDL of 0.06 mmol/L. [11] As a result, the authors concluded that carbohydrate-restricted diets confer cardiovascular benefits because they improve levels on HDL in the body. [11]

Fat is the primary source of fuel on a ketogenic diet, and supplementing with specific types of fat, particularly coconut oil and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil, can help you get into ketosis faster. MCT oil is unique in that it increases ketone levels in a linear, dose-dependent manner and allows for the induction of ketosis with lower amounts of total fat in the diet. (44)


By the 1990s, just as practicing oncologist were giving up on interleukin-2, bone marrow transplant (BMT) as a solution to poor prognosis or metastatic breast cancer started grabbing the headlines, touted as a cure for this most invidious of diseases striking so many women in the prime of life. Despite the lack of any compelling evidence it worked for this indication, bone marrow transplant was being pushed as a solution to deadly forms of breast malignancy. However, initially insurance companies refused to pay for this unproven and very expensive treatment, which could cost in those days up to $500,000 or more.
She learned about Kelley’s work, began the program, regained her health, and avoided all conventional doctors for many years. In 1984, nine years after coming under Kelley’s care, she returned to her primary care physician who was quite perplexed she was still alive after all this time. A chest x-ray showed total resolution of her once widespread lung metastases. 

There are several studies where researchers implanted human gliomas into the bodies of rats (a completely unrealistic scenario) and reported that the rats put on a ketogenic diet lived longer. In one study, rats with human brain cancer implanted in their bodies lived 56% longer on a ketogenic diet combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. “56% longer” sounds huge until you learn that the mean keto/oxygen therapy survival was 55 days compared to the control rats who lived 31 days. And all the rats still died of cancer.

Several laboratory abnormalities have been reported in children on the ketogenic diet, although none has been found to have clinical significance. Patients on the ketogenic diet are in a chronic acidotic state, putting them at risk for osteopenia. Some studies have shown a progressive loss of bone mineral content, resulting in osteopenia and osteoporosis; this loss occurred with ketogenic diet treatment despite improved serum vitamin D concentrations.
The cancer industry is probably the most prosperous business in the United States. In 2014, there will be an estimated 1,665,540 new cancer cases diagnosed and 585,720 cancer deaths in the US. $6 billion of tax-payer funds are cycled through various federal agencies for cancer research, such as the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The NCI states that the medical costs of cancer care are $125 billion, with a projected 39 percent increase to $173 billion by 2020.
So rather than giving one-size-fits-all dietary advice or weaponizing the word “balanced” it might be better if the medical community suggested that there are Individual differences that need to be considered. This might also help those lay folk who have had success with one dietary lifestyle or another also realize that what’s valid for them may not be good advice for others.

You can get cholesterol from eating animal foods like eggs, cheese, meat, and dairy but your body can also produce its own. An average 150 lb weighing male can synthesize 1000 mg of cholesterol a day. One single egg has 200 mg of cholesterol. The typical US dietary intake of cholesterol is about 307 mg[iv]. In that case, about 75% of your body’s cholesterol gets produced by the body internally and 25% gets ingested externally[v].
In 1921, Dr. R.M. Wilder at the Mayo Clinic proposed a diet for the treatment of epilepsy – which he referred to as a ketogenic diet – in which most of the calories were derived from fat, mimicking the biochemical changes of fasting.2 Today, children resistant to anti-epileptic drugs are still advised to follow keto diets to prevent seizures, always under the management of well-trained dietitians, of course. Indeed, according to the Epilepsy Society, the keto diet is considered to be a medical treatment.3
Taken together, results from preclinical studies, albeit sometimes contradictory, tend to support an anti-tumor effect rather than a pro-tumor effect of the KD for most solid cancers. However, even though pro-tumor effects are rare, they cannot be ruled out per se. Most importantly, available preclinical evidence implies that the feasibility of a KD as an adjuvant cancer therapy strongly depends on the type of tumor and its genetic alterations.
I also might offer a thought as to why, from a more esoteric, more biochemical perspective, for most people diagnosed with cancer the ketogenic diet might not work. For the past 150 years, researchers have approached cancer as a disease in which perfectly happy, normal mature cells sitting in some tissue somewhere suddenly go awry, lose their normal regulatory restraint, develop a primitive, undifferentiated appearance or phenotype, begin proliferating without restraint, begin invading through tissues and organs, begin migrating, spreading, creating new blood vessels along the way to feed the rapacious appetite of cancer. But over the past 15 years, gradually, a new, more productive, and I believe more truthful hypothesis has emerged, spearheaded particularly by Dr. Max Wicha at the University of Michigan. Scientists such as Dr. Wicha have discovered that cancer may be a little more complicated than we have thought these long decades.
I would receive further support for my thinking during the summer of 1981, after completing my second year of medical school. That July, through one of my journalism contacts from my previous life, I had the opportunity to meet the controversial alternative cancer practitioner, the dentist Dr. William Donald Kelley. Over a 20 year period beginning in the early 1960s, Kelley had developed a very intensive nutritional approach to cancer that came under harsh public scrutiny and media attention when he agreed to treat Steve McQueen.
Hello, following a Keto diet with IF but cholesterol ratios not proper. Diet fats come mainly from olive oil, avocado oil, once a week beef, no butter, bacon etc. Had to go back on statins. Goal is stay away from drugs. Is there a doctor/clinic in the Boston area that you can recommend that understands/tests what you explain in this article? Please advise.
Aside from the various keto-friendly foods mentioned in this article, you may be wondering if there are other options that may help support your ketogenic diet. If you find that the ketogenic diet is limiting when you start out, don't worry. There's actually a lot you can add to your diet that's "keto" as long as consumption is controlled. Here are some commonly asked questions:
Another epilepsy syndrome in which the diet may be particularly useful is Dravet syndrome (also known as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy). This syndrome is classically described as a prolonged febrile seizure in the first 2 years of life, followed by focal-onset seizures, myoclonus, and developmental delays [16, Class III]. Dravet syndrome is associated in many cases with mutations in the gene SCN1A, a subunit of the sodium channel [17].
Treatment with MAD was shown to be more effective in seizure control when the MAD was started with lower carbohydrate limits (Kossoff et al., 2010). In a randomized study with 20 children with drug-resistant epilepsy, 60% of them showed fewer seizures in the first 3 months on the MAD, with 10 g/day of carbohydrate intake against 10% of reduction with 20 g/day (p = 0.03). In the same study, after 3 months, an increase in carbohydrate intake to 20 g/day, maintained seizure control and improved tolerability, suggesting that a lower carbohydrate limit is important only in the first 3 months (Kossoff et al., 2007; Kossoff and Dorward, 2008).
Other genetic disorders caused by mutations limit the availability of energy substrates but do not necessarily cause seizures. One such disease is phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiency. PFK is the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis for the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Patients with mutations in the muscle isoform of PFK demonstrate exercise intolerance with myalgias and stiffness. There also are rare infantile forms, such as a case reported by Swoboda et al. [21, Class III], with myopathy and arthrogryposis. This patient displayed marked gains in muscle strength and improvement in his developmental milestones after being placed on the ketogenic diet.
Leanne: Totally, awesome, perfect. Today we’ve really come together to talk about cholesterol. It is a huge topic. Yeah, Cholesterol Clarity right there. A lot of my readers who are adopting this high fat, keto eating style are getting really nervous about cholesterol and you know if I eat too many eggs is my cholesterol going to go up and so a lot of people that are watching this show today, I bet you about 80% of them have their blood work in front of them.
Thank you very much, Betsy, for mentioning Dr. Gonzales and his views on the ketogenic diet. We had not heard of Dr. Gonzales before this. In preparing for our reply to you, we found your and your husband Bruce’s website dedicated to healing and restoring personal relationships. We mention this because we do not recall ever receiving a comment from anyone other than health care professionals or people concerned about their own nutrition.

It is an oversimplification that cancer cells use anaerobic fermentation all the time. Tumors have hypoxic zones and normoxic (aerobic) zones, with a symbiotic relationship between the two. Hypoxic cancer cells derive energy from fermentation of glucose, and secrete lactate. Normoxic cancer cells prefer and attract lactate as fuel for the TCA cycle, sparing glucose for the hypoxic cells. Cancer cells can switch fairly quickly between hypoxic and normoxic states, and may oscillate between the two. [NCBI, “Tumor cell metabolism: an integral view”]

Overall, 12 studies including 1257 patients examined the impact of a VLCKD on HDL cholesterol. When assessing the data, the individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieved an average increase in HDL of 0.12 mmol/L. This was double the average increase in HDL of the low-fat dieters who achieved an average increase in HDL of 0.06 mmol/L. [11] As a result, the authors concluded that carbohydrate-restricted diets confer cardiovascular benefits because they improve levels on HDL in the body. [11]
Proponents of the super-high-fat, low-protein approach argue that protein kicks the body out of ketosis by supplying amino acids for gluconeogenesis (simply put, turning non-carbs into fuel); however, research indicates that the impact of dietary protein on gluconeogenesis and glucose flux is nearly negligible, making this argument irrelevant. (42) In my practice, we have found that usual protein intakes (15 to 20 percent of calories) do not have appreciable effects on blood ketone levels. Besides, a super-high-fat, low-protein diet typically has more drawbacks than benefits—it may cause weight gain, muscle loss, fatigue, and chronic hunger. Don’t be afraid of including plenty of protein in your ketogenic diet; protein is a powerful tool that will satiate your appetite while facilitating fat loss and preventing muscle loss.
Ketosis: What is ketosis? Ketosis is a metabolic process, and it involves the body burning stored fat instead of glucose. Some people try to induce this with a low-carb diet, which can be healthy. However, ketosis also produces acid, and high levels of this can cause severe complications, especially for people with diabetes. Learn more here. Read now
To determine whether you’re in ketosis and what degree of ketosis you’re in, test your ketones each morning. Blood ketone testing is the most accurate method—I do not recommend breath or urine ketone monitoring. In our practice, we recommend the Precision Xtra Blood Glucose Meter Kit, which can be purchased on Amazon (you can buy test strips for this meter in bulk on eBay for a lower cost). Keto Mojo is another good meter with affordable test strips.
Further, the authors revealed that only 60 to 65% of patients with epilepsy become seizure free using medication while 35% are resistant to the effects of medication. And they used these statistics to justify this study. They further stated that there has been an “exponential” growth in interest in using the ketogenic diet for the treatment of epilepsy.
Dr. Vincent M. Pedre, medical director of Pedre Integrative Health and president of Dr. Pedre Wellness, is a board-certified internist in private practice in New York City since 2004. His philosophy and practices are a blend of both Western and Eastern medical traditions. He is a clinical instructor in medicine at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and is certified in yoga and medical acupuncture. His unique methodology is best described as integrative or defined by a functional, systems-based approach to health. With his holistic understanding of both sides of the equation, he can help each patient choose the best course of action for their ailments to provide both immediate and long-term relief. His holistic approach incorporates positive, preventive health and wellness lifestyle choices. Dr. Pedre Wellness is a growing wellness platform offering health-enhancing programs along with informative social media and lifestyle products, such as dietary supplements, books, and weight-loss programs.
Jimmy Moore: Exactly. You’re already have a propensity for insulin resistance. It should not surprise you that as you get into this that you’re going to run into some of the manifestation of that, which is this thing called Don Phenomena, where in the morning you have a higher level of blood sugar, that’s totally normal. What tends to happen though, and certainly the people that have asked that question of you, I hope they’re testing later in the day as well. What you’ll see is later in the day, totally normal.
As I ponder this enthusiasm, I have to think that perhaps I am just a little slower, or more cautious, than most. The day after I first met Dr. Kelley in New York in July 1981, I was on a plane to Dallas to begin my review of Kelley’s charts. As previously discussed, I quickly found among Kelley’s records case after case of appropriately diagnosed poor-prognosis and/or terminal cancer, patients alive five, ten, even 15 years later, with no possible explanation for such survival other than Kelley’s odd nutritional treatment.
Can’t you take ketone supplements? No. While it is possible to elevate ketones by taking them, “without the low-carb stimulus, there is no net increase in ketone production, no decrease in insulin, and no net increase in fat oxidation,” says Volek. Don’t trust trainers or “body hackers” who say you can induce ketosis quickly without changing your diet.
A ketogenic diet — which is very low in net carbohydrates and high in healthy fats — is key for boosting mitochondrial function. Healthy fats also play an important role in maintaining your body's electrical system. When your body is able to burn fat for fuel, your liver creates water-soluble fats called ketones that burn far more efficiently than carbs, thereby creating fewer reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secondary free radicals. Ketones also decrease inflammation, improve glucose metabolism and aid the building of muscle mass. The benefits of a cyclical ketogenic diet are detailed in my latest bestselling book, "Fat for Fuel." While the book was peer-reviewed by over a dozen health experts and scientists, a new large-scale international study (known as the international Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology, or PURE, study) adds further weight to the premise that high intakes of healthy fats — especially saturated fats — boost health and longevity.

What really matters here is how you feel when eating a particular way. Your mood, energy levels, lab results, and mental sharpness (to name a few) are powerful indicators of whether a diet works for you both short- and long-term. Body awareness is key as well as not following a specific diet because you think it’s the "right" diet to follow. Listen to your body. And most importantly, if you feel off, seek the help of a functional medicine practitioner to assist you in uncovering the root cause of your malaise or diet resistance. Sometimes all it takes is a few small tweaks to improve your health.
This is because the triglycerides from those fat cells are metabolized for energy while the cholesterol is not. The cholesterol is simply released into the blood where it will remain until removed by the liver, making it appear that our cholesterol has suddenly skyrocketed. Many people are quick to assume that this is due to an increase in dietary fat and cholesterol intake.

In order to transition and remain in this state, aiming for about 30–50 net grams is typically the recommended amount of total carbs to start with. This is considered a more moderate or flexible approach but can be less overwhelming to begin with. Once you’re more accustomed to “eating keto,” you can choose to lower carbs even more if you’d like (perhaps only from time to time), down to about 20 grams of net carbs daily. This is considered the standard, “strict” amount that many keto dieters aim to adhere to for best results, but remember that everyone is a bit different.
If you lift weights on a ketogenic diet, you might fear losing muscle mass taking in lower amounts of protein. That doesn’t seem to be the case since your body preferentially utilizes fat rather than protein during ketosis. Growth hormone, an anabolic hormone sometimes called your fountain-of-youth hormone because it keeps you lean and toned, plays a major role in regulating muscle growth and development, stimulating muscle protein synthesis. Researchers find a very-low carbohydrate diet with sufficient protein does not affect growth hormone levels, at least in the short-term. If you’re a regular lifter, you might want to consider slightly increasing your protein intake during workout days and supplementing with a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplement. Cyclical keto, where you would eat a higher-carbohydrate diet during your workout days, also makes for a smart strategy to maintain muscle.
For the latest update we searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialized Register (11 April 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Register of Studies Online (CRSO, 11 April 2017), MEDLINE (Ovid, 11 April 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov (11 April 2017) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP, 11 April 2017). We imposed no language restrictions. We checked the reference lists of retrieved studies for additional reports of relevant studies.

1. West, R., Beeri, M. S., Schmeidler, J., Hannigan, C. M., Angelo, G., Grossman, H. T., … Silverman, J. M. (2008). Better memory functioning associated with higher total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in very elderly subjects without the apolipoprotein e4 allele. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry : Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(9), 781–5. PMID: 18757771
There have been so many advancements in the cholesterol panels and we haven’t even talked about particle size, which we can get into in a minute. Some of the variations that have happened we’re now … we’ve progressed to if your triglycerides are under 70, you’re pretty much guaranteed that that’s the best possible heart health risk marker that you could even look at. Make it your goal to drop the triglycerides to under 70, and you do that with a low carb, high fat, keto diet.
In the present study, 83 obese patients (39 men and 44 women) with a body mass index greater than 35 kg/m(2), and high glucose and cholesterol levels were selected. The body weight, body mass index, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar, urea and creatinine levels were determined before and after the administration of the ketogenic diet. Changes in these parameters were monitored after eight, 16 and 24 weeks of treatment.
Growth Factor Suppression. The ketogenic diet suppresses insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). This molecule is associated with the formation and progression of cancerous cells. It is “upregulated” when you eat more carbohydrates, making it more likely to trigger cancer growth. Because the ketogenic diet is much lower in carbohydrates, scientists suspect that this suppresses IGF-1 production. This ultimately slows the formation of cancerous cells.
When she first consulted with Dr. Kelley in 1977 she was in a near terminal state after having failed intensive chemotherapy. Nonetheless, despite her dire situation within a year she had experienced complete regression of her extensive bony lesions, as documented by x-ray studies. Though in subsequent years her compliance with her nutritional regimen would waver and her disease would in turn recur, invariably when she resumed Kelley’s treatment the myeloma would go into remission.
I have studied fasting fairly extensively, done many 10-30 day fasts, and have said to my spouse if I ever got a cancer diagnosis I would immediately fast, but since learning more about ketogenic diets, which have most of the same benefits, I would go that route without question. I recently heard that chemotherapy is only successful in 40-50 % of the time. My impression is that the average person believes chemo and radiation are far more successful than they are in fact.
I’m certainly not an expert in cancer. Please keep that in mind when I say this, but I do tend to agree, just my overall view of most diseases, from what I’ve been able to gather, is that they are multifactorial, and I generally resist theories that seem to suggest that one disease has one cause. That’s unusual in my experience, from everything that I’ve seen. I wouldn’t necessarily say that. Dr. Seyfried and Dominic D’Agostino aren’t making that argument either, but I think what they bring to this is a fresh perspective that in many ways if it’s true, it can be more empowering for people that are dealing with cancer, and the risk of cancer, because it offers a lever for intervention and treatment above and beyond just the idea that “Oh, I have bad genes and there’s not really anything I can do about it.”
Clinical improvement was observed in Alzheimer’s patients fed a ketogenic diet, and this was marked by improved mitochondrial function. (15) In fact, a European Journal of Clinical Nutrition study pointed to emerging data that suggested the therapeutic use of ketogenic diets for multiple neurological disorders beyond epilepsy and Alzheimer’s, including headaches, neurotrauma, Parkinson’s disease, sleep disorders, brain cancer, autism and multiple sclerosis. (16)
Dr. Vincent M. Pedre, medical director of Pedre Integrative Health and president of Dr. Pedre Wellness, is a board-certified internist in private practice in New York City since 2004. His philosophy and practices are a blend of both Western and Eastern medical traditions. He is a clinical instructor in medicine at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and is certified in yoga and medical acupuncture. His unique methodology is best described as integrative or defined by a functional, systems-based approach to health. With his holistic understanding of both sides of the equation, he can help each patient choose the best course of action for their ailments to provide both immediate and long-term relief. His holistic approach incorporates positive, preventive health and wellness lifestyle choices. Dr. Pedre Wellness is a growing wellness platform offering health-enhancing programs along with informative social media and lifestyle products, such as dietary supplements, books, and weight-loss programs.
Chris, I’m missing the logic here. Even when carbohydrates are restricted, the body is going to take fats and glycogen and turn them back into blood sugar, i.e. glucose. Glucose is also the only fuel the brain can use, and when it is too high or too low, all kinds of alarm bells go off, and the body does everything it can to restore normal glucose levels. Ketogenic diet or not, blood sugar is going to stay pretty steady if all the normal regulatory mechanisms are in place. If there is glucose in the blood, there is glucose in the interstitial fluids, and cancer cells are never going to be starved for glucose. So if restricting carbs has any use in cancer therapy, it has nothing to do with preventing cancer cells from getting glucose. If there is no glucose in the blood, you are dead.
“It may be difficult for keto-dieters to meet their energy and protein needs, and the diet may cause long-term issues, including kidney damage, higher cholesterol levels, unintentional weight loss, bone loss, and certain vitamin and mineral deficiencies,” the article says. They say a more moderated approach to the diet may be advised, and cite that reducing refined carbohydrates and increasing the amount of healthy fats consumed can be beneficial to one’s overall health.
Something that makes the keto diet different from other low-carb diets is that it does not “protein-load.” Protein is not as big a part of the keto diet as fat is. Reason being: In small amounts, the body can change protein to glucose, which means if you eat too much of it, especially while in the beginning stages, it will slow down your body’s transition into ketosis.

Great article! I have been diagnosed with familial hypercholesterolemia, however, I am not concerned at all. I continue to follow a restricted calorie, zero carb ketogenic diet, that I have been doing strictly for the last year and a half. All of my health markers are excellent, except for LDL particle number and total, and it is the large buoyant type. I am middle-aged (46). I did get both a CT scan and tri-vascular scan, and got perfect scores for both. That alleviated any concerns that I might have previously had. Since this diet has improved my gut issues, bodyfat, blood pressure, insulin, blood glucose, mood, energy, A1C, CRP, etc., - basically every single health parameter I have tested, I am sticking with it! Thank you for clearing up the confusion surrounding LDL!
The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that's recently become popular for weight loss. But the diet has been used to treat epilepsy since the 1920s, according to the Epilepsy Society, a charity in the United Kingdom. Although most people with epilepsy today control their seizures with anti-epileptic drugs, the diet is sometimes prescribed to children with epilepsy who have not responded to several medications.
The ketogenic diet may seem like the Jekyll to the Hyde-like low-fat craze of the 1990s. The bulk of current research finds that the middle ground between the two extremes is more beneficial for overall health. Make it easy for yourself: Eat at least two servings a week of fatty fish (salmon, sardines, mackerel) and cook with a variety of quality fats (olive oil, canola oil, avocado oil) throughout the week.
Jimmy Moore: That’s a loaded question. I’ll try to make it a little more pointed. Cholesterol and I’m really happy to hear that you went from what you say around 140 or so, to about 230 or 40. That’s actually a very good thing, and one of the key elements in the body, one of the key roles of cholesterol in the body, is for hormone regulation. A lot of good things about having more cholesterol and when you have less cholesterol in the body you actually take away some of those key things that could be happening and that’s why some people when they tend to have lower cholesterol levels … I used to take Lipitor back before my low carb, keto days, and I got my total cholesterol to around 130?
Initial studies indicate that the ketogenic diet appears effective in other metabolic conditions, including phosphofructokinase deficiency and glycogenosis type V (McArdle disease). It appears to function in these disorders by providing an alternative fuel source. A growing body of literature suggests the ketogenic diet may be beneficial in certain neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In these disorders, the ketogenic diet appears to be neuroprotective, promoting enhanced mitochondrial function and rescuing adenosine triphosphate production.

Thank you, Dr. Jockers. I really appreciate your reply. I was wondering if insulin resistance would make my cholesterol go up on the ketogenic diet from a total of 220 before I went on it to 378 after being on it for six months. I have always been in a healthy weight range for my height, but I have always been extremely hungry most of the time. I really got on the ketogenic diet hoping that this would be regulated after being on it for some time, but it hasn’t helped that much. Would this signify that insulin resistance may be the culprit for my sudden rise in cholesterol even though I am following the ketogenic diet perfectly?
The Ketogenic Diet (KD) is a modality of treatment used since the 1920s as a treatment for intractable epilepsy. It has been proposed as a dietary treatment that would produce similar benefits to fasting, which is already recorded in the Hippocratic collection. The KD has a high fat content (90%) and low protein and carbohydrate. Evidence shows that KD and its variants are a good alternative for non-surgical pharmacoresistant patients with epilepsy of any age, taking into account that the type of diet should be designed individually and that less-restrictive and more-palatable diets are usually better options for adults and adolescents. This review discusses the KD, including the possible mechanisms of action, applicability, side effects, and evidence for its efficacy, and for the more-palatable diets such as the Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) and the Low Glycemic Index Diet (LGID) in children and adults.
In one week my husband lost 1.5 kg because of Keto diet and recipes. Thank you for the insights and tips. I would like to have a complete recipe for meals everyday and hoping by subscribing I will receive try my mail. I will keep u posted. It takes 2 to tango. The one who wants to diet must be cooperative with the plan and execution while the other person who is preparing the food must be patient to the dieting person. Its not easy to change meals so patience is required
Given that the consumption of a high carbohydrate diet promotes inflammation and in turn causes CVD, is it any wonder then that our bodies would produce LDL particles which work to repair vascular damage, as they are needed to patch up the damage? Unfortunately LDL can only do so much under the constant onslaught of inflammation but had it not been there in the first place the person would not have survived as long as they did.
[46:12] – Why smoking is linked to a high risk of cardiovascular disease even when cholesterol might be low. The key is to find out what it is that makes the vascular system weak or strong. Dave explains why he believes the weak association between cholesterol and atherosclerosis may be due to the body’s response to stress bringing higher levels of cholesterol.
Short-term results for the LGIT indicate that at one month approximately half of the patients experience a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency, with overall figures approaching that of the ketogenic diet. The data (coming from one centre's experience with 76 children up to the year 2009) also indicate fewer side effects than the ketogenic diet and that it is better tolerated, with more palatable meals.[18][50]
It’s not clear just how a ketogenic diet works for seizures. But Yellen says seizures are like “electrical storms” in the brain. “There are potassium channels in the brain that, when open, seem to have a quieting influence on this electrical excitation,” he says. “We think these channels work better when the brain is using ketones instead of glucose for energy.” Even when epilepsy medications have failed, a ketogenic diet can work wonders, he says.
The American Academy of Neurology and the Child Neurology Society recommend adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the first line of therapy for infantile spasms. The goals for this medication are to completely stop the infantile spasms and improve the abnormal EEG. In some cases, pediatric neurologists prescribe the seizure medication Sabril® (vigabatrin), especially for patients with tuberous sclerosis. Both drugs work well, but your child's doctor will talk with you about which medicine may be the better choice for your child.
The total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio is found by dividing your total cholesterol level by your HDL-C, and it is essentially the same thing as an LDL-to-HDL cholesterol ratio since most non-HDL cholesterol is LDL cholesterol [26]. The researchers of the 2003 meta-analysis used this ratio because it is a better cardiovascular risk predictor than total cholesterol levels [25].
By the way, the relative heaviness of stored glycogen is why many people report fast weight loss on a ketogenic or low-carb diet: their body has dumped a little extra weight in the form of glycogen and water (which tags along with glycogen in a 3 parts water to 1 part glycogen ratio). Unfortunately, this water and glycogen comes right back once we start eating normally again.
The keto diet works for such a high percentage of people because it targets several key, underlying causes of weight gain — including hormonal imbalances, especially insulin resistance coupled with high blood sugar levels, and the cycle of restricting and “binging” on empty calories due to hunger that so many dieters struggle with. In fact, these are some of the direct benefits of the keto diet.
You will be meeting with the ketogenic diet team when your child is admitted to the hospital, and frequently while your child is on the diet. The team is made up of a neurologist, a registered dietitian, and a registered nurse (ketogenic diet coordinator). The ketogenic diet should never be started without being supervised by a team of professionals.

Historically, elevated blood cholesterol levels have been linked to atherosclerosis, a condition involving deposits of plaque that cause the arterial lining to thicken and potentially impair blood flow to the heart. The process of plaque deposition is complex but involves white blood cells, calcium, cholesterol, and other substances converging at the site of inflamed or damaged arteries.
In children who can be successfully withdrawn from anti-convulsant therapy and are seizure-free for 2 years on the ketogenic diet (about 10 percent of treated children), an EEG is repeated and the ketogenic diet is slowly withdrawn. However, the diet is often stopped earlier if not successful. Similarly, after 2 years in children with continued seizures, most ketogenic diet centers will at least try to have the children come off the diet and see if it is no longer necessary for control.
While I can appreciate Mr. Feldman's efforts and I am also a hyper responder, I have no doubt that cholesterol levels are merely an artifact / symptom of the real cause of CVD which is hyperinsulinemia which for type 2 diebetics or pre-diabetics (which are simply undiagnosed diabetics) is due to high carbohydrate diets causing high blood glucose levels as well as other known causes of infllammation such as trans fat and high omega 6 to omega 3 ratios. In other words, there is no need to try and cure the symptom which is controlling lipoprotein levels directly.  
In contrast to the safe application of KDs reported in various cancer models, our research group recently reported that mice bearing renal cell carcinoma xenografts and with signs of Stauffer’s syndrome experienced dramatic weight loss and liver dysfunction when treated with a KD [4]. Another study investigating the effect of long-term KD treatment on kidney cancer described a pro-tumor effect of the KD in a rat model of tuberous sclerosis complex [5]. Most concerning is the observation that, in a mouse model of BRAF V600E-positive melanoma, tumor growth was significantly increased under the KD [6]. Moreover, the study also demonstrated that the ketone body acetoacetate stimulated the oncogenic signaling of the BRAF pathway. In contrast, the KD had no effect on the progression of NRAS Q61K-positive or wild-type melanoma xenografts [6]. Notwithstanding these observations, in a feasibility trial involving a limited number of patients with advanced malignancies, a patient with BRAF V600E-positive/BRAF-inhibitor resistant melanoma seemed to benefit from the KD [7].
At the time I finished my monograph in 1986, I hoped that with its publication, fair-minded researchers might begin taking Dr. Kelley and his nutritional therapy seriously. As I was to learn, I completely and rather naively misjudged the animus of the scientific community toward unconventional cancer treatment approaches that didn’t fit the “accepted” model. Even with Dr. Good’s support, after two years of trying I could not get the book published, either in its entirety, or in the form of individual case reports appropriate for the conventional medical journals.
• Increasing muscle mass — Jeff Volek, Ph.D., is a registered dietitian specializing in how a high-fat, low-carb diet can affect health and athletic performance. He's written many scientific articles on this topic, as well as two books, and he explains that ketones have a similar structure to branched-chain amino acids that can be useful for building muscle mass. Ketones spare these amino acids, leaving higher levels of them around, which can help promote muscle mass.

A popular keto supplement are exogenous ketones (popularly called “keto diet pills”) that may help you achieve results earlier as well as remain in that state. (Don’t confuse exogenous ketones with raspberry ketones, as the latter don’t raise ketone levels in the body or mimic endogenous ketones, so you wouldn’t use raspberry ketones in your regimen.)
A ketogenic diet derives approximately 90% of dietary calories from fat, 8% from protein, and just 2% from carbohydrates.1 In comparison, the standard American diet derives 35%, 15%, and 50% of calories from fat, protein, and carbohydrates, respectively. Although it is rising in popularity, the ketogenic diet is not a new dietary intervention. It is an established nutritional treatment approach — first developed in the 1920s — for patients who have epilepsy that is not well controlled with antiepileptic agents. The keto diet later remerged as an acceptable intervention in the 1990s.

32••. Qin W, Ho L, Zhao Z, et al. Neuronal SIRT1 activation as a novel mechanism underlying the prevention of Alzheimer disease amyloid neuropathology by calorie restriction. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21745–21754. This study demonstrates that sirtuins link calorie restriction with disease-modifying effects in a neurodegenerative disorder. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
People suffering from diabetes and taking insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents suffer severe hypoglycemia if the medications are not appropriately adjusted before initiating this diet. The ketogenic diet is contraindicated in patients with pancreatitis, liver failure, disorders of fat metabolism, primary carnitine deficiency, carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiency, carnitine translocase deficiency, porphyrias, or pyruvate kinase deficiency. People on a ketogenic diet rarely can have a false positive breath alcohol test. Due to ketonemia, acetone in the body can sometimes be reduced to isopropanol by hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase which can give a false positive alcohol breath test result. 
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