The predominant use of glucose anaerobically by cancer cells (Warburg effect) may be the most important characteristic the majority of these cells have in common and, therefore, a potential metabolic pathway to be targeted during cancer treatment. Because this effect relates to fuel oxidation, dietary manipulation has been hypothesized as an important strategy during cancer treatment. As such, the concept of a ketogenic diet (KD) in cancer emerged as a metabolic therapy (ie, targeting cancer cell metabolism) rather than a dietary approach. The therapeutic mechanisms of action of this high-fat, moderate-to-low protein, and very-low-carbohydrate diet may potentially influence cancer treatment and prognosis. Considering the lack of a dietetics-focused narrative review on this topic, we compiled the evidence related to the use of this diet in humans with diverse cancer types and stages, also focusing on the nutrition and health perspective. The use of KD in cancer shows potentially promising, but inconsistent, results. The limited number of studies and differences in study design and characteristics contribute to overall poor quality evidence, limiting the ability to draw evidence-based conclusions. However, the potential positive influences a KD may have on cancer treatment justify the need for well-designed clinical trials to better elucidate the mechanisms by which this dietary approach affects nutritional status, cancer prognosis, and overall health. The role of registered dietitian nutritionists is demonstrated to be crucial in planning and implementing KD protocols in oncology research settings, while also ensuring patients’ adherence and optimal nutritional status.
Take your stress hormone cortisol: It stays highest in the morning and gradually tapers throughout the day. Measuring cortisol in the morning might yield an entirely different result from testing in the evening. Researchers speculate ketogenic diets might raise this stress hormone, but many other factors also come into play here that may have nothing to do with your diet.
So rather than giving one-size-fits-all dietary advice or weaponizing the word “balanced” it might be better if the medical community suggested that there are Individual differences that need to be considered. This might also help those lay folk who have had success with one dietary lifestyle or another also realize that what’s valid for them may not be good advice for others.

I’ve been Keto for over a year now. I’ve lost 60 lbs. I’m off Metformin for type 2 diabetic and my LDL has improved significantly. In my experience, Keto will show some quick results in some but for others it will take longer. It depends on how long you’ve been on the standard American diet. It will take time for your body to fix “self-heal”. Not everyone will have the same results in the same amount of time.
Low-carbohydrate high fat diets (LCHF diets) consistently improve all other markers of cardiovascular risk — lowering elevated blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, ApoB and saturated fat (especially palmitoleic acid) concentrations, reducing small dense LDL particle numbers, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, blood pressure and body weight while increasing low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and reversing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Clinical improvement was observed in Alzheimer’s patients fed a ketogenic diet, and this was marked by improved mitochondrial function. (15) In fact, a European Journal of Clinical Nutrition study pointed to emerging data that suggested the therapeutic use of ketogenic diets for multiple neurological disorders beyond epilepsy and Alzheimer’s, including headaches, neurotrauma, Parkinson’s disease, sleep disorders, brain cancer, autism and multiple sclerosis. (16)
There were adverse effects within all of the studies and for all KD variations, such as short‐term gastrointestinal‐related disturbances and increased cholesterol. However, study periods were short, therefore the long‐term risks associated with these adverse effects is unknown. Attrition rates remained a problem with all KDs and across all studies; reasons for this being lack of observed efficacy and dietary tolerance.

The research on how extended intermittent fasts affect cancer patients backs up our biochemical understanding as well. In initial case studies, cancer patients who were undergoing chemotherapy voluntarily fasted for anywhere between 48 to 140 hours (much longer than the intermittent fasts that keto dieters typically do). Each person reported fewer side effects and an improved quality of life regardless of how long they fasted.
Thank you very much, Betsy, for mentioning Dr. Gonzales and his views on the ketogenic diet. We had not heard of Dr. Gonzales before this. In preparing for our reply to you, we found your and your husband Bruce’s website dedicated to healing and restoring personal relationships. We mention this because we do not recall ever receiving a comment from anyone other than health care professionals or people concerned about their own nutrition.
Proponents of the super-high-fat, low-protein approach argue that protein kicks the body out of ketosis by supplying amino acids for gluconeogenesis (simply put, turning non-carbs into fuel); however, research indicates that the impact of dietary protein on gluconeogenesis and glucose flux is nearly negligible, making this argument irrelevant. (42) In my practice, we have found that usual protein intakes (15 to 20 percent of calories) do not have appreciable effects on blood ketone levels. Besides, a super-high-fat, low-protein diet typically has more drawbacks than benefits—it may cause weight gain, muscle loss, fatigue, and chronic hunger. Don’t be afraid of including plenty of protein in your ketogenic diet; protein is a powerful tool that will satiate your appetite while facilitating fat loss and preventing muscle loss.
With regard to Dr. Gonzales’ disagreement with Dr. Seyfried regarding ketogenic diets and cancer, it is known that cancer cells use glucose but not fatty acids for energy. Thus depriving cancer cells of glucose by means of a ketogenic diet is a logical approach. Beyond that, at the present time too little known about cancer metabolism to make any definitive statements about proper treatment. As lay people, we will leave the argument to medical professionals.
In order to be successful, this therapy calls for strict compliance and plenty of patience, especially in the beginning. Most important, patients with epilepsy should only use the diet with the support of a knowledgeable ketogenic diet team, including a doctor and a licensed dietitian who can correctly calculate and monitor the diet for each individual.
Thank you very much, Betsy, for mentioning Dr. Gonzales and his views on the ketogenic diet. We had not heard of Dr. Gonzales before this. In preparing for our reply to you, we found your and your husband Bruce’s website dedicated to healing and restoring personal relationships. We mention this because we do not recall ever receiving a comment from anyone other than health care professionals or people concerned about their own nutrition.
There have been a few studies of the modified Atkins Diet in adults with seizure disorders, and the results are similar to studies with children. Interestingly, it was remarked in one of the reports that it was more difficult to keep adults on the diet since they obviously have more control over what they eat. Research is still limited in this area and more trials are needed.
Eating a 5,000-calorie diet high in fat will certainly put you in ketosis, but you probably won’t lose weight because those excessive calories have to go somewhere. You needn’t be as adamant about calories doing a ketogenic diet, but they do still matter. Drizzling 500 calories of MCT oil or butter onto your steak will probably get you into ketosis, but the scales aren’t going to provide you much love. However, having the right amount of extra fat in the diet while keeping starchy carbohydrates low will make you into a fat-burning machine.
Similarly, in a 2015 study, mice receiving a combination of hyperbaric oxygen and dietary ketone supplementation showed a clear reduction in tumor growth rate and metastasis.20 Also, these mice lived twice as long as control animals. Based on these results, the study authors state that further investigation into the effectiveness of this combination therapy as a potential treatment for late-stage metastatic cancers is urgently required. 

Anticonvulsants suppress epileptic seizures, but they neither cure nor prevent the development of seizure susceptibility. The development of epilepsy (epileptogenesis) is a process that is poorly understood. A few anticonvulsants (valproate, levetiracetam and benzodiazepines) have shown antiepileptogenic properties in animal models of epileptogenesis. However, no anticonvulsant has ever achieved this in a clinical trial in humans. The ketogenic diet has been found to have antiepileptogenic properties in rats.[56]
Since this is my full-time job, donations really help me keep afloat and allow me to post as much to the website as I do. While I do really appreciate any donation you want to give, you can enter $0 in the amount given to download it for free! I’ve added in $5 as the suggested price. I think that’s a very fair price considering other websites are charging in the hundreds of dollars and I’ve seen what they are like on the inside.
Spices are an easy way of adding more flavor, vitamins and antioxidants into your food. Furthermore, they are low in carbohydrates. Make sure that you're using fresh, organic spices for maximum flavor and nutrients. Some spices sold in packets found at the local grocery should not be used, as they often contain fillers that can increase your carbohydrate consumption, thus putting you out of ketosis.26
Dirty keto diet: “Dirty” is the apt term, as these version of keto follows the same strict percentages (75/20/5 of fat/protein/carbs) but rather than focusing on healthy versions of fat like coconut oil and wild salmon, you’re free to eat naughty but still keto friendly foods like bacon, sausage, pork rinds, diet sodas and even keto fast food. I do NOT recommend this.
A ketogenic diet helps control blood sugar levels. It is excellent for managing type 2 diabetes, sometimes even leading to complete reversal of the disease. This has been proven in studies. It makes perfect sense since keto lowers blood-sugar levels, reduces the need of medications and reduces the potentially negative impact of high insulin levels.
However, our glycogen supplies in the liver and muscle are quite limited, providing only an 8-12 hour emergency supply. So during a fast, or starvation, or on a diet providing no carbohydrates in any form, we quickly run out of glycogen. In this situation, through a variety of neural and hormonal signaling, our fat cells, or adipocytes, begin releasing free fatty acids into the blood stream. These fatty acids can in turn be used by our cells in the alternate ATP producing process of beta oxidation.
Hello, following a Keto diet with IF but cholesterol ratios not proper. Diet fats come mainly from olive oil, avocado oil, once a week beef, no butter, bacon etc. Had to go back on statins. Goal is stay away from drugs. Is there a doctor/clinic in the Boston area that you can recommend that understands/tests what you explain in this article? Please advise.
It can be challenging to maintain ketosis while providing enjoyable meals with enough calories for normal growth. Our long-running Ketogenic Diet Clinic is anchored by nutritionists who specialize in the diet and can provide detailed counseling. Families using the classic ketogenic diet will receive a selection of recipes individualized for their child. A gram scale will be needed to precisely weigh food ingredients (thanks to support from the Tyler Foundation, we have been able to help with obtaining a gram scale when necessary). Our nurses and social workers experienced in diet treatment can provide additional support.
Hello, following a Keto diet with IF but cholesterol ratios not proper. Diet fats come mainly from olive oil, avocado oil, once a week beef, no butter, bacon etc. Had to go back on statins. Goal is stay away from drugs. Is there a doctor/clinic in the Boston area that you can recommend that understands/tests what you explain in this article? Please advise.

Ketogenic diet is one of the oldest forms of medical treatment for epilepsy. Most ketogenic diet centres have traditionally specialized in treating children ages 0 to 18 years of age. However, there is growing evidence that shows its usefulness in controlling seizures in adults. In the content below, you will find answers to frequently asked questions about the benefits and challenges of this diet therapy. Please note, the ketogenic diet should never be attempted on your own. It should only be attempted with the support of a trained medical team.
To obtain the optimum engagement of the family and the patients, providing information and training is essential because the diet is difficult to maintain. Counselors should talk with the family about their expectations and make clear the efficacy rate and adverse events (AE), to reduce the abandonment of the diet. Websites, videos and publications, especially from support groups, can be very helpful and should be encouraged. It is also important to review the medications and change from oral solutions (carbohydrate content) to tablets (Armeno et al., 2014). The KD counseling, evaluation and follow-up should be done by a multidisciplinary team. A pediatric neurologist or neurologist and a nutritionist are the minimum team requirements.

Excessive LDL particles have been found to be associated with the development of atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart disease. In atherosclerosis, LDL particles are known to end up in damaged artery walls, and connected to an inflammatory response. Over time, cholesterol, calcium, white blood cells and other substances accumulate at the site to form a plaque. Most heart attacks and strokes are caused when a plaque ruptures and forms a clot that blocks arterial blood flow.
She learned about Kelley’s work, began the program, regained her health, and avoided all conventional doctors for many years. In 1984, nine years after coming under Kelley’s care, she returned to her primary care physician who was quite perplexed she was still alive after all this time. A chest x-ray showed total resolution of her once widespread lung metastases.
Can your body handle higher amounts of dietary fat? (To make this process easier, I recommend my patients gradually increase their fat intake. Your digestive enzymes need time to ramp up to be able to handle the higher fat content in your digestive tract, or it can cause unpleasant gas, bloating, and diarrhea.) Remember: If the thought of eating higher-fat foods like steak or avocado doesn’t appeal to you, keto probably isn't for you.
Another group at increased CVD risk are those with one or two copies of the apoE4 allele (gene). These individuals tend to have higher VLDL cholesterol but lower HDL cholesterol. In addition to heart disease, they have greater risk for Alzheimer's disease, cancer and other diseases (9). The Apo-E4 forums provide helpful information, guidance and support for those with the apoE4 allele.
In a recent meta-analysis, eight studies were identified that used the MAD in adult patients with refractory epilepsy, aged between 15 and 86 years, with treatment times ranging from 3 to 36 months. In these studies, the proportion of patients who showed >50% seizure reduction ranged from 20 to 70% and the rate of seizure freedom ranged from 7 to 30%. The rate of abandonment of the diet varied between 12.5 and 82% of the patients (Liu et al., 2018).

Also, consider supplementing with the amino acid leucine, as it can be broken down directly into acetyl-CoA, making it one of the most important ketogenic amino acids in the body. While most other amino acids are converted into glucose, the acetyl-CoA formed from leucine can be used to make ketone bodies. It’s also present in keto friendly foods like eggs and cottage cheese.

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