So on the surface, Dr. Seyfried’s argument that cancer is primarily a metabolic disease (an argument I’ll look at in more depth shortly) is well within the bounds of current oncologic science. Indeed, a few years ago it was all the rage, and I remember attending several sessions and lectures on the Warburg effect and cancer at the AACR meetings three or four years ago, although, oddly enough, I don’t recall as many the last couple of years. In any event, if that’s all I looked at, I probably would have shrugged my shoulders and moved on, as in, “Nothing to see here.” But there are quite a few red flags. The first red flag is a claim that a ketogenic diet can treat cancer better than chemotherapy. The second, even bigger, red flag is on Dr. Seyfried’s Boston College web page:
Typically known as the “bad cholesterol” to its healthy counterpart HDL cholesterol, increased levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). [14] Some studies show a strong correlation between LDL cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases in both men and women. [15] Evidence also suggests that decreasing blood levels of LDL-C reduces the risk of CVD. [16]

The findings below have been limited to research specific to the ketogenic diet: the studies listed contain about 70-80% fat, 10-20% protein, and 5-10% carbohydrate. Diets otherwise termed “low carbohydrate” may not include these specific ratios, allowing higher amounts of protein or carbohydrate. Therefore only diets that specified the terms “ketogenic” or “keto,” or followed the macronutrient ratios listed above were included in this list below. In addition, though extensive research exists on the use of the ketogenic diet for other medical conditions, only studies that examined ketogenic diets specific to obesity or overweight were included in this list. (This paragraph was added to provide additional clarity on 5.7.18.)


What about fruits and vegetables? All fruits are rich in carbs, but you can have certain fruits (usually berries) in small portions. Vegetables (also rich in carbs) are restricted to leafy greens (such as kale, Swiss chard, spinach), cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, asparagus, bell peppers, onions, garlic, mushrooms, cucumber, celery, and summer squashes. A cup of chopped broccoli has about six carbs.
Although the exact role of the keto diet in mental and brain disorders is unclear, there has been proof of its efficacy in patients with schizophrenia. And, to boot, it works to reverse many conditions that develop as a side effect of conventional medications for brain disorders, like weight gain, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risks. More research is needed to understand the role of the ketogenic diet in treating or improving schizophrenia, as the current available studies are either animal studies or case studies, but the benefits of a low carbohydrate, high-fat diet in neurology is promising.
Another epilepsy syndrome in which the diet may be particularly useful is Dravet syndrome (also known as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy). This syndrome is classically described as a prolonged febrile seizure in the first 2 years of life, followed by focal-onset seizures, myoclonus, and developmental delays [16, Class III]. Dravet syndrome is associated in many cases with mutations in the gene SCN1A, a subunit of the sodium channel [17].
Anticonvulsants suppress epileptic seizures, but they neither cure nor prevent the development of seizure susceptibility. The development of epilepsy (epileptogenesis) is a process that is poorly understood. A few anticonvulsants (valproate, levetiracetam and benzodiazepines) have shown antiepileptogenic properties in animal models of epileptogenesis. However, no anticonvulsant has ever achieved this in a clinical trial in humans. The ketogenic diet has been found to have antiepileptogenic properties in rats.[56] 

Although the ketogenic diet has been around for a long time and may be efficacious in many medical conditions, there is a surprising dearth of long-term studies on its safety. The bulk of the information comes from children using a ketogenic diet for epilepsy. Negative effects seen in children on a ketogenic diet long-term (≥2 years) are poor growth (while on the diet), kidney stones, and dyslipidemia (elevated cholesterol and/or triglycerides). Many of these effects can be overcome with careful attention to mineral intake while on the diet and/or termination of the diet.52 Most long-term studies evaluating adults using a ketogenic diet for weight loss have found very few serious adverse effects.53 54 55 56 However it should be noted that these studies only looked at one year duration on the diet, and poor adherence to the diet was frequently noted as a problem.
In conclusion, clinical application of KDs as an adjuvant therapy for cancer patients first requires that the KD be evaluated for its anti-tumor effect for each single type/genetic subtype of cancer in a preclinical setting, as the safety and efficacy of the KD strongly depend on the tumor entity and its genotype. Based on the results of rigorous preclinical and clinical studies performed thus far, the KD would appear to be a promising and powerful option for adjuvant therapy for a range of cancers. Cancer-specific recommendations await the findings of randomized controlled clinical trials.
Certain studies suggest that keto diets may “starve” cancer cells. A highly processed, pro-inflammatory, low-nutrient foods can feed cancer cells causing them to proliferate. What’s the connection between high-sugar consumption and cancer? The regular cells found in our bodies are able to use fat for energy, but it’s believed that cancer cells cannot metabolically shift to use fat rather than glucose. (11)

For someone who has cancer and a big battle ahead, I would recommend Miriam Kalamian's book for getting started, and cronometer.com for tracking what you eat. Then, The Metabolic Approach to Cancer by Nasha WInters, doctor of Naturopathy, is really good - 350 pages from her experience coaching cancer patients. These two women come from a place of their own life-and-death struggles with Keto diet and cancer and it shows in the intensity of their studies. I go back to these two books again and again. They are fine works and for them, I'd pay double what I did if I had to.
While KD and MAD have demonstrated efficacy in reducing the extent and degree of seizures in epileptic patients, the dietary approaches have been tied to risk of adverse events in both adults and children, although most are treatable and are nearly all  preventable. Adverse effects include constipation, low blood sugar, and gastrointestinal reflux.5,6 Other side effects, such as kidney stones and high cholesterol, can often be improved with supplements or dietary changes.1 These also tend to improve over the long term. Kossoff and colleagues found that both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol normalized within a year of treatment after initial increases during the first three months of MAD.5
A ketogenic diet — which is very low in net carbohydrates and high in healthy fats — is key for boosting mitochondrial function. Healthy fats also play an important role in maintaining your body's electrical system. When your body is able to burn fat for fuel, your liver creates water-soluble fats called ketones that burn far more efficiently than carbs, thereby creating fewer reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secondary free radicals. Ketones also decrease inflammation, improve glucose metabolism and aid the building of muscle mass. The benefits of a cyclical ketogenic diet are detailed in my latest bestselling book, "Fat for Fuel." While the book was peer-reviewed by over a dozen health experts and scientists, a new large-scale international study (known as the international Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology, or PURE, study) adds further weight to the premise that high intakes of healthy fats — especially saturated fats — boost health and longevity.
Numerous preclinical studies have provided evidence for an anti-tumor effect of KDs [1] (Figure 1). For example, our laboratory intensively studied the anti-tumor effect of KDs in combination with or without low-dose chemotherapy on neuroblastoma. We found that the growth of neuroblastoma xenografts was significantly reduced by a KD consisting of a 2:1 ratio of fat to carbohydrate + protein when combined with caloric restriction [2]. However, caloric restriction, despite its anti-tumor effect and potential to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy, would be contraindicated in a range of cancer patients, particularly those with cachexia. Thus, we further focused on optimizing the KD composition to address this issue. We found that an ad libitum KD (8:1) with a fat content of 25% medium-chain triglycerides and 75% long-chain triglycerides produced a stronger anti-tumor effect compared to a KD (8:1) with all long-chain triglycerides, and was as efficacious against neuroblastoma as the above-described KD (2:1) combined with caloric restriction [3]. These results stress the importance of an optimized KD composition to suppress tumor growth and to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy without requiring caloric restriction.

[29:44] – There is increasing evidence for what Dave likes to call, the Alternative Glycogen Store Theory. Do leaner, athletic types of individuals seem to be more likely to be hyper-responders, in particular those with lower levels of triglycerides and high levels of LDL-C and LDL-P? Gary mentions Dr William Davis, from Wheat Belly, post on Lp(a) traits.

It needs to be emphasized that the diet is a form of medical therapy. As such, although it is relatively safe, it is not without side effects. However, only 5-6% of patients discontinue the diet due to side effects (most stop because it didn’t help) and the vast majority of patients are either treatable or even preventable. It is important for parents to be aware of the side effects to help identify them quickly.
Bob wasn’t the only physician, his clinic not the only place, where the ketogenic diet has been applied in modern times. At the Johns Hopkins Medical Center, for many years a group of researchers and neurologists have prescribed a very strict ketogenic diet for children with intractable seizures, that is, seizures unresponsive to currently available medications. For this particular indication, in adults as well as children, the diet works quite well.
If you have chronic inflammation and/or stress, you may also have persisting high cholesterol levels which, in most cases, isn’t doing anything but causing more problems. The preponderance of this chronic inflammation and stress is typically caused by a variety of lifestyle factors, from eating foods that trigger inflammation to sleeping poorly. [27]
Conklin's fasting therapy was adopted by neurologists in mainstream practice. In 1916, a Dr McMurray wrote to the New York Medical Journal claiming to have successfully treated epilepsy patients with a fast, followed by a starch- and sugar-free diet, since 1912. In 1921, prominent endocrinologist Henry Rawle Geyelin reported his experiences to the American Medical Association convention. He had seen Conklin's success first-hand and had attempted to reproduce the results in 36 of his own patients. He achieved similar results despite only having studied the patients for a short time. Further studies in the 1920s indicated that seizures generally returned after the fast. Charles P. Howland, the parent of one of Conklin's successful patients and a wealthy New York corporate lawyer, gave his brother John Elias Howland a gift of $5,000 to study "the ketosis of starvation". As professor of paediatrics at Johns Hopkins Hospital, John E. Howland used the money to fund research undertaken by neurologist Stanley Cobb and his assistant William G. Lennox.[10]
“Because cancer cells prefer to use glucose, diets that limit glucose may be beneficial,” Barbara Gower, PhD, senior author and professor in the Department of Nutrition Sciences, said in a statement. “Because they limit glucose and several growth factors, ketogenic diets will limit the ability of cancer to grow, which gives the patient’s immune system time to respond.”

Bonnie J. Brehm, Randy J. Seeley, Stephen R. Daniels, and David A. D’Alessio, “A Randomized Trial Comparing a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet and a Calorie-Restricted Low Fat Diet on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Women,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism: Vol 88, No 4; January 14, 2009. http://press.endocrine.org/doi/full/10.1210/jc.2002-021480.
When you first embark on a ketogenic diet, your goal is to be in nutritional ketosis consistently. Over time, as you train your body to function on fewer carbohydrates, you may enter the fat adaptation phase. While ketosis can be achieved after just a few days of the diet, at least three to four weeks of strict adherence to the diet is required in order to reach the fat adaptation state. This is also the time frame during which you’ll likely begin to notice benefits of the diet.
Implementing the diet can present difficulties for caregivers and the patient due to the time commitment involved in measuring and planning meals. Since any unplanned eating can potentially break the nutritional balance required, some people find the discipline needed to maintain the diet challenging and unpleasant. Some people terminate the diet or switch to a less demanding diet, like the modified Atkins diet or the low-glycaemic index treatment diet, because they find the difficulties too great.[42]
The take-home message here is that patients with epilepsy have options beyond simple pharmaceutical intervention, and these include dietary changes which well-respected science is now validating as having significant efficacy. A fundamental cornerstone of the Grain Brain Program is profound reduction of carbohydrates and sugars while increasing “good” dietary fats. This approach tends to favor a low grade of ketosis which may well be the normal state of human metabolism. I have written extensively both on the site and in Grain Brain how this dietary approach has profound health-related benefits that relates to weight loss, metabolism, energy, reduction of inflammation, and even reduce risk for diabetes and cancer. This new report offers up yet another benefit to a higher fat lower carbohydrate dietary approach, in this case, for a disease that is devastating for so many.
Then you’ve got "keto-approved" junk foods like cookies, candy, and bread that promise to keep you in ketosis even as you indulge in your favorite comfort foods. The flip side is ketogenic diets that include almost no plant foods, focusing instead on meat, meat, and more meat. Bring on the bacon. Slather your steak in butter. Who needs vegetables? (Hint: You do!) Ketogenic diets are a practical invitation for vegetable-phobic people, and when you skip out on gut-healing plant foods, you create microbiome mayhem.
Your medical team can recommend cookbooks and websites that have recipes that can help to make the diet easier to adhere to. Although starchy food like pancakes, muffins, crackers and breads are eliminated or consumed in only small amounts on ketogenic diets, it is possible to make delicious ketogenic versions of these foods using things like nut flours and ground flax or other seeds.
Taken together, results from preclinical studies, albeit sometimes contradictory, tend to support an anti-tumor effect rather than a pro-tumor effect of the KD for most solid cancers. However, even though pro-tumor effects are rare, they cannot be ruled out per se. Most importantly, available preclinical evidence implies that the feasibility of a KD as an adjuvant cancer therapy strongly depends on the type of tumor and its genetic alterations.
Jimmy Moore: One year ago my, I guess this about a year and a half ago now, time flies when you’re having fun … my total cholesterol was over 400. A lot of people, and of course I talked to lipidologists and heart people all the time on my podcasts, and I was throwing the numbers out there and one of the lipidologists “Oh you need the highest dose of Staten drug possible because you’ll not be able to get that down without it.” In writing Cholesterol Clarity, I determined that I had some other things that were raising the cholesterol and it’s not that I have a Staten drug deficiency. It’s that I have something underlined inside of me somewhere that the cholesterol was going to try to take care of.
This diet is not without its side effects, so it is very important to become well informed when considering ketogenic diet therapy. Do not attempt the ketogenic diet without medical supervision from a properly trained ketogenic diet team, especially if you are taking anti-seizure medications. This ketogenic diet team includes a neurologist, a registered dietitian and nurse and sometimes a nurse practitioner, pharmacist, social worker and other specialists.
Jimmy Moore: You as the patient are actually the one in charge. This is one of the themes of my books Leanne, is I want to empower patients to take back control of their own health again. People see doctors, “Oh well they have all the answers about health.” No they don’t. They’ve been given, if there lucky, a week or two worth of nutritional health information in their medical training. Everything else is physiological and pharmacological. They’ve been trained to drug you up.
Agreed. The big problem is that a person can't (or shouldn't) get a CACS often enough to prove that a dietary change will make a difference. Calcification is usually slow & the radiation from the scan isn't trivial. Medical professionals or patients can jump to a conclusion & remedy/change their diets immediately. I would go with the person's instincts (do you feel better on this diet?) & get the appropriate scanning tests done after a sizeable interval.  
Unknown to most, even within the alternative world, my friend Bob Atkins tried the ketogenic diet for some 12 years on many of his cancer patients, with no significant success as he reported to me. As a telling point, under the name “Dr. Robert Atkins” on Amazon, one will find dozens of books he authored including his original diet book, its many incarnations and editions, along with books on vitamins, minerals – but glaringly absent, no book on cancer. Yes, the ketogenic diet has been tried before, with cancer patients, and without success.
Artificial sweeteners such as saccharin (Sweet’N Low), aspartame (NutraSweet, Equal), and sucralose (Splenda) are quite popular among low-carb dieters. However, concerning new research indicates that artificial sweeteners have adverse metabolic effects and may work against your keto efforts by disrupting your gut microbiota and inducing insulin resistance and weight gain. (46, 47) If you want to use a non-caloric sweetener, I recommend either stevia or monk fruit sweetener.
Feel free to practice cyclical ketosis (maybe doing a ketogenic diet five days a week and going higher in healthy carbs the other two days) or whatever works for you. I’ve never heard an expert say you should be in ketosis 24/7, and militantly sticking with this plan can ultimately stall your goals. Once you’re in a state of ketosis, you can transition to a more flexible ketogenic plan. You can rotate complex carbs, like sweet potatoes, pumpkin, and butternut squash, into the diet every three to four days to maintain your glycogen stores if you work out and lift weights regularly.

Use fat as a lever.  We’ve been taught to fear fat, but don’t! Both keto and low carb are high fat diets. Fat is our source of energy as well as satiety. The key to understand, though, is that fat is a lever on a low carb or keto diet. Carbs and protein stay constant, and fat is the one you increase or decrease (push the lever up or down) to gain or lose weight, respectively. So if your goal is weight loss, eat enough fat to be satisfied, but there’s no need to “get your fats in” once you’re satisfied.

Of course, there are plenty of cancer therapies that are effective and non-toxic, but they are not covered by insurance companies in the U.S., and most of them are not approved by the FDA, so one must go south of the border into Mexico or travel to another country to receive the best non-toxic cancer therapies. (See: Cancer – The Forbidden Cures and Why Medicine Won’t Allow Cancer to Be Cured)

This equates to about 20 grams of carbohydrates on a 2000 kcal diet per day – a more stringent application of carbohydrate restriction use than the meta-analysis above. The second group consumed primarily a low-fat diet with 46%, 24%, and 30% energy from respectively from carbohydrate, protein, and fat per day. Both diets contained an equal number of calories.
With the exception of the myeloma patient, all the other six patients, both Kelley’s and mine, followed a high carb, plant-based diet, replete with frequent servings of fruit and multiple glasses daily of sugar-rich carrot juice. I challenge, for the benefit of science, Dr. Seyfried to match these seven simple straightforward cases. In my experience, no one else has been able to meet the challenge, so I question whether Dr. Seyfried can either.
It is very interesting to read about the keto/low card diet.I love to change my lifestyle as I an TYPE 2 Diabetic.I subscribed for a free printable low carb meal .The initial email stated that that I will receive an email for instructions to access the members area .Your free download will be there.However it is very deceiving ,I never got the 2nd email with instructions which is frustrating and not good .Hopefully this is not a way to get us to pay to get the printable version.
To the surprise of these investigators – at the time no Western scientist believed any human could survive on nothing but meat – this Eskimo diet consisted of virtually 100% animal products, 80% in the form of fat, with much of it saturated, 20% protein, but essentially no carbohydrates. From cradle to grave these traditional Eskimos lived in a state of ketosis.
Epilepsy can be caused by a variety of different conditions including head trauma, infection, brain tumor, and stroke, but by and large most cases of epilepsy have no readily identifiable cause. Epilepsy affects some 2.3 million adults in America and close to half a million children. Further, about one in 26 people will be diagnosed with epilepsy at some point in their lives. It’s been estimated that there are approximately 150,000 new cases of epilepsy diagnosed in the United States each year and overall about $15.5 billion in medical costs as well as lost earnings and production are attributed to this disease.
It’s not clear just how a ketogenic diet works for seizures. But Yellen says seizures are like “electrical storms” in the brain. “There are potassium channels in the brain that, when open, seem to have a quieting influence on this electrical excitation,” he says. “We think these channels work better when the brain is using ketones instead of glucose for energy.” Even when epilepsy medications have failed, a ketogenic diet can work wonders, he says.
What this shows is that there is very little difference in heart disease risk relative to total cholesterol above and below 200. In fact, no significant increase in risk was measured until total cholesterol reached an excess of 240. There also seems to be a protective role that having a total cholesterol above 180 serves both for heart disease and healthy mental function.
Collectively, these findings suggest that LDL particle size is a more precise indicator of future cardiovascular illness than total LDL cholesterol even when people have high levels of one but not the other. That being said, LDL-C is still a useful indicator for future cardiovascular illness and ideally you want to have both low LDL-C and LDL-P. (Click here to find optimal ranges for LDL-C and here for LDL-P)
Thank you, Thank you, Thank you!!!!! Your article couldn't have been timed any better. I got my blood panel back from my "western" doctor two days ago and the numbers had me very worried. After reading your post yesterday I felt so much better and sent the results off to my naturopath knowing that everything should be fine. I printed it out for my own reference and for any others, doctors included, who may have doubts and questions. Again, a big thanks for all your research and putting it out there for the rest of us trying to live a longer, healthier life!!

My son has been fighting brain cancer for 18yrs. Started st 15, now 33. He’s otherwise healthy. Never looks sick at all. In the beginning he had 6mos chemo industrial strength. He never got sick, ate 3 meals a day and gained weight. Followed by radiation, that he didn’t feel good, but he still did pretty well. PNET morphed into Ependymoma. What info can you send me specifically for brain cancer. Will the fasting, Keto diet, stop sugar intake work on brain cancer due to the Blood Brain Barrier? He is having his 8th surgery Mar 18. Previous surgery was just 6mos ago. He also was in 2 clinical trials in the last 2yrs (Car T cell therapy directly into the tumor bed area.) We have run out of options and will try anything. Please help.


In retrospect, it makes sense that in the Arctic the Eskimos, in order to survive, would have adjusted to their high fat, moderate protein, no carb diet. With its brief summer and lacking soils suitable for crops, the region provides insufficient plant foods suitable for human consumption but does offer an abundance of fatty animal food both on land and in the sea. If the Eskimos hadn’t adapted to such food, living as they did in such a difficult, extreme part of the world, they simply would have died off.
This study demonstrates not only high feasibility but also that a ketogenic diet can shift the metabolic environment among women with ovarian and endometrial cancers, said Gower, a professor at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Nutrition Obesity Research Center. Further study in a clinical setting is needed to determine whether the ketogenic diet may be an effective non-pharmacologic adjuvant therapy for certain types of cancer, the paper concluded.
The ketogenic diet has been shown in many studies to be particularly helpful for some epilepsy conditions. These include infantile spasms, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex, Dravet syndrome, Doose syndrome, and GLUT-1 deficiency. Using a formula-only ketogenic diet for infants and gastrostomy-tube fed children may lead to better compliance and possibly even improved efficacy.

Increased enterohepatic circulation on high fat means that cholesterol is kept "in play" - bounced back into the bloodstream in ApoB particles - while low enterohepatic circulation, in people with with higher synthesis rates, during weight loss - when cholesterol is being dumped by shrinking cells - means that cholesterol can pile up in the gall bladder faster than it can be conjugated to bile salts and bile acids and faster than it can be extracted by the weak stimulus of low fat food.


High levels of triglycerides in the blood are thought to be a sign of poor metabolism. Poor metabolism, or metabolic disorders, are associated with obesity, diabetes, heart disease and cancer. Often times, elevated triglycerides are a byproduct of insulin resistance. In these cases, a ketogenic diet is an excellent strategy to improve those numbers.
The MAD aims to provide increased flexibility and palatability, with a 1:1 ratio of fat to carbohydrates and protein, and contains around 65% fat, 25% protein, and 10% carbohydrate (Payne et al., 2018). Fat is encouraged and the carbohydrate intake is limited to 10–20 g/day in children and 15–20 g/day in adults (Kossoff, 2004; Kossoff and Dorward, 2008). Because of carbohydrate restriction, the MAD can also produce urinary ketones (Carrette et al., 2008). The MAD does not require weighing food on a gram scale, or restriction of calories, protein or liquids, and may be a good option for patients who are unable to tolerate a more restrictive diet such as the classical ketogenic diet (KD) (Cervenka et al., 2012). Low-carbohydrate multivitamin and calcium carbonate supplementation is recommended in the MAD (Kossoff et al., 2009).
One downside to a ketogenic diet for weight loss is the difficulty maintaining it. “Studies show that weight loss results from being on a low-carb diet for more than 12 months tend to be the same as being on a normal, healthy diet,” says Mattinson. While you may be eating more satiating fats (like peanut butter, regular butter, or avocado), you’re also way more limited in what’s allowed on the diet, which can make everyday situations, like eating dinner with family or going out with friends, far more difficult. Because people often find it tough to sustain, it’s easy to rely on it as a short-term diet rather than a long-term lifestyle.
A study evaluating the effects of a ketogenic diet among 66 obese adults, from which 35 had high cholesterol levels and 31 had normal levels of cholesterol demonstrated that both groups resulted in statistically significant decreased levels of LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides, whereas the HDL cholesterol levels were increased. These results show that keto diet can improve cholesterol levels and ratios of cholesterol levels among obese people regardless of their cholesterol levels before the dietary intervention. Furthermore, this study also demonstrates that low-carb diet is safe to use for a longer period of time in overweight people with a high total cholesterol level and those with normocholesterolemia (18).
If you’ve decided to move forward in trying the keto diet, you will want to stick to the parameters of the eating plan. Roughly 60 to 80 percent of your calories will come from fats. That means you’ll eat meats, fats, and oils, and a very limited amount of nonstarchy vegetables, she says. (This is different from a traditional low-carb diet, as even fewer carbs are allowed on the keto diet.)
Type 2 diabetes. One study found that being on the keto diet for one year reversed diabetes for up to 60 percent of participants. With an average weight loss of 30 pounds, they dramatically reduced or eliminated their need for insulin and no longer needed oral hypoglycemic drugs. The keto diet is also easier to sustain than the calorie-restricted diet or the protein-sparing modified fast.

When you eat less than 50 grams of carbs a day, your body eventually runs out of fuel (blood sugar) it can use quickly. This typically takes 3 to 4 days. Then you’ll start to break down protein and fat for energy, which can make you lose weight. This is called ketosis. It's important to note that the ketogenic diet is a short term diet that's focussed on weight loss rather than the pursuit of health benefits. 


Cancer cells need to carefully maintain their “redox status”. Redox status is the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. Oxidants, including free radicals and other “reactive” chemical species, are made continuously in every living cell as a byproduct of metabolic activities. Several antioxidant systems have evolved in our body to specifically counter the harmful actions of these oxidants.
There’s less research, as I mentioned before, in humans, but the little that does exist, I think, is promising and should lead us to doing more. One study monitored tumor growth in response to a high-carb versus a ketogenic diet in 27 patients with cancer of the digestive tract. Tumor growth increased by 32.2 percent in patients who received the high-carb diet, but actually decreased by 24.3 in the patients on ketogenic diet. However, in this study, the difference was not statistically significant. That’s a whole other discussion about statistical significance that I won’t go into here, but that’s one potential reason to take that study with a grain of salt.
Ketogenic diets are low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets that alter the body's metabolism to produce ketones, which puts the patient into a state called ketosis. The state of ketosis has been linked to reduced seizure frequency in some adults with epilepsy. Studies have shown that approximately 50 percent of patients on this diet experience a 50 percent or greater reduction in seizures.
Jimmy Moore: One year ago my, I guess this about a year and a half ago now, time flies when you’re having fun … my total cholesterol was over 400. A lot of people, and of course I talked to lipidologists and heart people all the time on my podcasts, and I was throwing the numbers out there and one of the lipidologists “Oh you need the highest dose of Staten drug possible because you’ll not be able to get that down without it.” In writing Cholesterol Clarity, I determined that I had some other things that were raising the cholesterol and it’s not that I have a Staten drug deficiency. It’s that I have something underlined inside of me somewhere that the cholesterol was going to try to take care of.
Currently, after more than 25 years in practice, I am writing a two-volume set consisting of detailed case histories of our own patients, like the two mentioned above, to make the point that the therapy works in practice. For those diagnosed with poor-prognosis solid tumors, many now alive in excess of 10 years, I have prescribed a high carbohydrate diet, in total contradiction to what Dr. Seyfried proposes as the ideal anti-cancer approach.
A recent study found that ketone supplementation extended survival in mice with metastatic cancer. But while it’s true that most cancers have a highly anaerobic metabolism, this in not universal. If proven to be effective, it’s likely that ketone supplementation would be an additional treatment rather than a stand alone treatment for cancer, because of its robust nature.
In summary, I think the metabolic theory on cancer is really interesting and there’s already some good evidence to support it. Clearly, we need more research. Whether or not this research will get done is the big question because as we know, two-thirds of medical research is sponsored by pharmaceutical companies. It can be difficult for researchers like Dominic D’Agostino to get funding to do this kind of research because nobody can patent the ketogenic diet and fasting. There’s not as much money as there would be in a kind of miracle drug that targets gene therapy and things like that. That’s one of the reasons there isn’t as much research as there might be otherwise.

A high carbohydrate intake can exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) by feeding opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria in the gut. (29) These microbes ferment dietary carbohydrates, producing gases that increase intraabdominal pressure, a driving force behind acid reflux and GERD. The gas manufactured by these bacteria also contributes to bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea in IBS.
This is a wealth of information. My husband and I are starting the keto diet tomorrow and I knew nothing about it. When I sat down to look up information about it, I found this. Thank you! This is everything I need to know in one place. We are not as healthy as we’d like to be and I am optimistic this will help us obtain our goals, along with an exercise plan.
There have been a few studies of the modified Atkins Diet in adults with seizure disorders, and the results are similar to studies with children. Interestingly, it was remarked in one of the reports that it was more difficult to keep adults on the diet since they obviously have more control over what they eat. Research is still limited in this area and more trials are needed.
In a model of PD, neurons cultured from the developing mesencephalon, the site of the future substantia nigra, are susceptible to injury and death from the application of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), which inhibits mitochondrial energy production. Adding one of the ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate, rescues these cells from death and reduction in neurite outgrowth [37]. In an in vivo model, mice treated with β-hydroxybutyrate via continuous subcutaneous infusion were relatively protected from the dopaminergic degeneration induced by injection of MPTP, an MPP+ precursor, apparently by enhancing oxidative phosphorylation and the production of ATP [38].
The ketogenic diet has been shown in many studies to be particularly helpful for some epilepsy conditions. These include infantile spasms, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex, Dravet syndrome, Doose syndrome, and GLUT-1 deficiency. Using a formula-only ketogenic diet for infants and gastrostomy-tube fed children may lead to better compliance and possibly even improved efficacy.
If you are on, or considering going on, a ketogenic diet, you are probably already aware that it is a hugely powerful way to cut body fat quickly, easily and safely. You may also have read about its other health benefits, including its ability to stabilize blood glucose levels, making you feel energetic all day long and cutting out sugar cravings, as well as helping prevent or manage type 2 diabetes. What you may not have heard about yet, is evidence from a recent study that suggests that a ketogenic diet can prevent cancer, and can slow the growth of existing tumors.

By doing this, HDL prevents cholesterol from accumulating and clogging arteries. Thus, elevated levels of cholesterol are integral in maintaining optimal cardiovascular health. [3] HDL is typically measured through an HDL-C test, which shows the concentration of cholesterol bound to HDL. Clinically acceptable levels of HDL cholesterol are 40-60 mg/dl and 50-60 mg/dl for women. [4] HDL levels above 60 mg/dl are ideal as they lower the risk of cardiovascular illnesses. [4]
Dirty keto diet: “Dirty” is the apt term, as these version of keto follows the same strict percentages (75/20/5 of fat/protein/carbs) but rather than focusing on healthy versions of fat like coconut oil and wild salmon, you’re free to eat naughty but still keto friendly foods like bacon, sausage, pork rinds, diet sodas and even keto fast food. I do NOT recommend this.

Hey David, You will definitely want to do everything you can to mitigate the mold issue. If you cannot remove it from your environment (or yourself from that environment) then you will want to use things like glutathione, liver support, activated charcoal, and daily detoxification strategies as much as possible. For the LDL testing, this is one of the best I know of https://drjockers.com/cardiopower-testing/
A recent 2017 study of over 2,500 adults looked at fasting insulin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), an inflammatory marker considered a strong predictor of heart attack risk. In this study, people with the highest insulin levels were more than four times as likely to have an elevated hs-CRP value compared to those with the lowest insulin levels. By contrast, elevated LDL cholesterol levels showed no association with hs-CRP (4).
However, this doesn't happen in every case or even most cases. In fact, many people see little to no increase in their LDL cholesterol while experiencing beneficial changes in other markers, such as an increase in HDL cholesterol and a decrease in triglycerides, blood sugar, and insulin levels – all of which are associated with reduced risk of CVD.

A great deal of exciting research is emerging regarding the application of a ketogenic diet in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. (17) Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by brain insulin resistance, a condition that starves neurons of the glucose they normally need to function correctly. Scientists have found that ketones are an excellent alternative fuel for the insulin-resistant brain. In addition, ketones reduce brain oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, two significant factors in the neurodegenerative disease process.
A Cochrane systematic review in 2018 found and analysed eleven randomized controlled trials of ketogenic diet in people with epilepsy for whom drugs failed to control their seizures.[2] Six of the trials compared a group assigned to a ketogenic diet with a group not assigned to one. The other trials compared types of diets or ways of introducing them to make them more tolerable.[2] In the largest trial of the ketogenic diet with a non-diet control[16], nearly 38% of the children and young people had half or fewer seizures with the diet compared 6% with the group not assigned to the diet. Two large trials of the Modified Atkins Diet compared to a non-diet control had similar results, with over 50% of children having half or fewer seizures with the diet compared to around 10% in the control group.[2]
To test whether energy reserves in hippocampal neurons were enhanced with the KD, they counted the number of energy "factories," or mitochondria, within cells using electron microscopy. They found that KD treatment significantly increased the number of mitochondria per unit area in the hippocampus. This finding, along with the concerted increase in the expression of genes encoding energy metabolic enzymes, led them to conclude that KD treatment enhances energy production in the hippocampus and may lead to improved neuronal stability.

Frederick F. Samaha, M.D., Nayyar Iqbal, M.D., Prakash Seshadri, M.D., Kathryn L. Chicano, C.R.N.P., Denise A. Daily, R.D., Joyce McGrory, C.R.N.P., Terrence Williams, B.S., Monica Williams, B.S., Edward J. Gracely, Ph.D., and Linda Stern, M.D., “A Low-Carbohydrate as Compared with a Low-Fat Diet in Severe Obesity,” N Engl J Med 2003; 348:2074-2081. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa022637.

As the Atkins diet makes abundantly clear, problem foods like gluten and dairy can slip into the strictest low-carb or keto plans. I often see patients "doing keto" with massive amounts of cheese or processed meats full of fillers, which is a terrible idea. These potential top food sensitivities increase inflammation and create problems with gut permeability, leading to leaky gut syndrome.
A ketogenic diet — which is very low in net carbohydrates and high in healthy fats — is key for boosting mitochondrial function. Healthy fats also play an important role in maintaining your body's electrical system. When your body is able to burn fat for fuel, your liver creates water-soluble fats called ketones that burn far more efficiently than carbs, thereby creating fewer reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secondary free radicals. Ketones also decrease inflammation, improve glucose metabolism and aid the building of muscle mass. The benefits of a cyclical ketogenic diet are detailed in my latest bestselling book, "Fat for Fuel." While the book was peer-reviewed by over a dozen health experts and scientists, a new large-scale international study (known as the international Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology, or PURE, study) adds further weight to the premise that high intakes of healthy fats — especially saturated fats — boost health and longevity.
Since my numbers were high my doc ordered a calcium scoring test which shows some mild calcium increase in my lower depending artery which is not normal for a female of my age and health.  Initially he wanted me to abandon the diet and follow a Mediterranean low fat diet.  I suggested I eat more monounsaturated fats but stay on the low carb diet and he agreed. I have seen a great deal of benefit from the low carb diet and am unwilling to give it up at this time. 

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It’s not clear just how a ketogenic diet works for seizures. But Yellen says seizures are like “electrical storms” in the brain. “There are potassium channels in the brain that, when open, seem to have a quieting influence on this electrical excitation,” he says. “We think these channels work better when the brain is using ketones instead of glucose for energy.” Even when epilepsy medications have failed, a ketogenic diet can work wonders, he says.
It seems to me that your’re presenting conflicting information. Your series had T. Colin Campbell and his research from the China Study. And the healing benefits of a plant based diet. Animal protein causes inflammation. Is there specific science on the ketogenic diet? I know people doing keto long term and they look awful and seem to be sick all the time. I have heard of the keto flu.
Neurological Function– A ketogenic diet may be neuroprotective since it increases energy production in the brain, limits the production of free radicals, limits neuronal excitability and increases production of GABA in the brain.27 28 Researchers have hypothesized that a ketogenic diet and, in particular, ketones might benefit neurological function in several conditions and situations, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Friedreich’s ataxia, autism and traumatic brain injury. 29 30 In Alzheimer’s disease, it appears that brain cells become unable to use glucose for energy production; a ketogenic diet can provide an alternative fuel for the brain. 31 Several studies have found that giving patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), a type of fat that is readily accessible for ketone formation, improves cognition, but the effects are more pronounced in those that do not carry the APOE e4 gene variant that is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s.32 33 34 Research is just beginning to explore these conditions, and a better understanding of how effective the ketogenic diet is in treating certain neurological conditions will likely be available in the near future.
Leanne: Yeah, that believed in coconut from the very beginning and they didn’t go on this campaign of ridding it from the earth. I’m totally pro coconut oil and saturated fat. It’s been so great chatting with you about this cholesterol piece. I hope that a lot of our listeners, watchers, readers are going to benefit from the information that you’ve shared. If they want to know more about you Cholesterol Clarity is awesome. Keto Clarity is great. Your podcast, just download every single podcast Jimmy’s ever made. It will keep you busy for the next two years.
Yes and there is also 1000s studies that are paid by the meat industry to say that meat is good. What u say is right BUT the meat industry is really messed up too. Super intensive production of really low quality beef is killing us and the planet. Watch cowspiracy/ and documentaries of the sort and then tell m the balk of the problem is not here.. or at least as big as sugar corporations
Meat – like grass-fed selections – and fresh veggies are more expensive than most processed or fast foods. What you spend on Keto-friendly foods will vary with your choices of protein source and quality. You can select less-expensive, leaner cuts of meat and fatten them up with some oil. Buying less-exotic, in-season veggies will help keep you within budget.
Cancer cells need to carefully maintain their “redox status”. Redox status is the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. Oxidants, including free radicals and other “reactive” chemical species, are made continuously in every living cell as a byproduct of metabolic activities. Several antioxidant systems have evolved in our body to specifically counter the harmful actions of these oxidants.
An overwhelming majority (90%) of parents said that they would. Even though the keto diet is extremely restrictive, time consuming, and requires rigid maintenance, most parents found the potential benefits outweighed its drawbacks. Many parents in the study were more concerned about the side effects of the medications―and were grateful for the opportunity to explore an alternative option. Further, 55% would consider trying the diet again. 

The take-home message here is that patients with epilepsy have options beyond simple pharmaceutical intervention, and these include dietary changes which well-respected science is now validating as having significant efficacy. A fundamental cornerstone of the Grain Brain Program is profound reduction of carbohydrates and sugars while increasing “good” dietary fats. This approach tends to favor a low grade of ketosis which may well be the normal state of human metabolism. I have written extensively both on the site and in Grain Brain how this dietary approach has profound health-related benefits that relates to weight loss, metabolism, energy, reduction of inflammation, and even reduce risk for diabetes and cancer. This new report offers up yet another benefit to a higher fat lower carbohydrate dietary approach, in this case, for a disease that is devastating for so many.
Uh, no. Not exactly. Preclinical experiments are intriguing but fairly limited in applicability, and the case reports demonstrate nothing of the sort. There’s more to Dr. Seyfried’s hypothesis, for example, his idea that metastatic cancer comes about because of alterations in glutamine metabolism, but unfortunately he appears to misunderstand the genetics of metastasis when he bases part of his conclusion on observations that metastatic cancers often have the same genetic derangements as the primary tumor. It’s been a longstanding question whether clones of tumor cells possess the ability to metastasize as an intrinsic part of the process of becoming cancer cells or whether they acquire it later. Given that evolution is a major force driving cancer cells to become more invasive and that tumors are very heterogeneous, full of lots of different clones with different sets of genetic mutations, Dr. Seyfried’s hypothesis is at best simplistic. Also disappointingly, the evidence for any diet as a treatment for cancer is weak at best.

Before embarking on the ketogenic diet, we assess the child’s nutritional status, diet preferences and calorie needs. If the diet seems like it will be feasible for the family, we customize it to each child to achieve optimal seizure control while meeting daily energy and nutrient needs. Sometimes, if extra attention is needed, we start the diet in the hospital. Special ketogenic formulas are available for infants or children who need to be fed though a tube.
A well-formulated ketogenic diet, besides limiting carbohydrates, also limits protein intake moderately to less than 1g/lb body weight, unless individuals are performing heavy exercise involving weight training when the protein intake can be increased to 1.5g/lb body weight. This is to prevent the endogenous production of glucose in the body via gluconeogenesis. However, it does not restrict fat or overall daily calories. People on a ketogenic diet initially experience rapid weight loss up to 10 lbs in 2 weeks or less. This diet has a diuretic effect, and some early weight loss is due to water weight loss followed by a fat loss. Interestingly with this diet plan, lean body muscle is largely spared. As a nutritional ketosis state sustains, hunger pangs subside, and an overall reduction in caloric intake helps to further weight loss.
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