In this way, stem cells allow complex life to exist and continue, providing tissue replacements as needed, appropriate for the tissue in which they live. That is, liver stem cells will create new liver cells as needed, bone marrow stem cells will create new bone marrow clones as required, intestinal stem cells will form, as necessary, intestinal lining cells. In this way, the developmental capacity of stem cells seems to be governed by the local environment.

Fat is the primary source of fuel on a ketogenic diet, and supplementing with specific types of fat, particularly coconut oil and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil, can help you get into ketosis faster. MCT oil is unique in that it increases ketone levels in a linear, dose-dependent manner and allows for the induction of ketosis with lower amounts of total fat in the diet. (44)


The weight and body mass index of the patients decreased significantly (P<0.0001). The level of total cholesterol decreased from week 1 to week 24. HDL cholesterol levels significantly increased, whereas LDL cholesterol levels significantly decreased after treatment. The level of triglycerides decreased significantly following 24 weeks of treatment. The level of blood glucose significantly decreased. The changes in the level of urea and creatinine were not statistically significant.

As I wrote in my book, “Nevertheless on the therapy [Kelley’s] he slowly began to improve, to the point his mental status normalized and over a period of a year, he progressed from a wheelchair to a walker to a cane.” When I completed my study in 1987, he had survived 5 years and was in excellent health, with no evidence of cancer in his brain or spinal canal.
Jimmy Moore: Quite frankly. They’ve not been trained to teach you how to do nutrition, and then if they turn to nutrition they either leave it to the dietitian who has been trained in low fat, high carb diets or they’ll just “Well, the USDA my plate says blah blah blah.” They’re just parading what someone else has said. They’ve not done their own research. Just assuming that your doctor knows everything about what it takes nutritionally to make you healthy is a bad mistake.
HDL stands for high-density lipoprotein and its primary role in the body is actually to sweep up LDL particles and return them to the liver for recycling. This is because LDL is actually very susceptible to oxidation so it must be cleared from the blood efficiently. This means when LDL is exposed to chronic inflammation, it becomes damaged. The longer LDL remains in the blood stream and the higher your inflammation levels are, the higher your risk of heart disease.
Since this is my full-time job, donations really help me keep afloat and allow me to post as much to the website as I do. I really appreciate any donation you want to give, but you can change the price yourself. I’ve added in $15 as the suggested price. I think that’s a very fair price considering other websites are charging in the hundreds of dollars, and I’ve seen what they are like on the inside.
The study also found that two types of bacteria, called Akkermansia muciniphila and Parabacteroides, were elevated by the diet. When these two types of bacteria were given in combination to mice that didn't have their own gut bacteria, the anti-seizure effect of the keto diet was restored. What's more, this combination of bacteria protected against seizures even if the mice were fed a nno-keto diet.

We are brazilian, living in Brazil. My daughter, Isabel, 21y. o., born in 1996, has syndrome of deficiency of Glut1. She was diagnosed around her first year of life. At that time her baby bottle, her begining diet meal, was 50ml water plus 50ml oil plus vitamin. Since then, which means, for 20 years, she is under this diet. For almost 18 years under 4:1 proportion. At this right moment 3:1. The only problem she had since started the diet were kidney stones in 2002. Nothing else. Grateful to the diet she doesn’t take any kind of medicine to avoid seizures. Her health is perfect, no colesterol at all. We are at your will for any issues related to her health.
The cancer industry is probably the most prosperous business in the United States. In 2014, there will be an estimated 1,665,540 new cancer cases diagnosed and 585,720 cancer deaths in the US. $6 billion of tax-payer funds are cycled through various federal agencies for cancer research, such as the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The NCI states that the medical costs of cancer care are $125 billion, with a projected 39 percent increase to $173 billion by 2020.
In fact, ketogenic diets have been used for nearly a century to treat seizures, says Gary Yellen, a professor or neurobiology at Harvard Medical School. “It dates back to studies from the 1920s that found this kind of diet was like a sustainable form of fasting, which we’ve known, supposedly since antiquity, to be beneficial for epilepsy,” he says.

A study of 89 obese adults who were placed on a two-phase diet regimen (6 months of a very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and 6 months of a reintroduction phase on a normal calorie Mediterranean diet) showed a significant mean 10% weight loss with no weight regain at one year. The ketogenic diet provided about 980 calories with 12% carbohydrate, 36% protein, and 52% fat, while the Mediterranean diet provided about 1800 calories with 58% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 27% fat. Eighty-eight percent of the participants were compliant with the entire regimen. [12] It is noted that the ketogenic diet used in this study was lower in fat and slightly higher in carbohydrate and protein than the average ketogenic diet that provides 70% or greater calories from fat and less than 20% protein.
Ketogenic diets are low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets that alter the body's metabolism to produce ketones, which puts the patient into a state called ketosis. The state of ketosis has been linked to reduced seizure frequency in some adults with epilepsy. Studies have shown that approximately 50 percent of patients on this diet experience a 50 percent or greater reduction in seizures.

Going into nutritional ketosis by following a ketogenic diet is one of the most radical but highly beneficial lifestyle changes you can make to improve your health. As with most dietary changes, always remember to listen to your body. If you feel any side effects other than the ones listed above, then necessary adjustments to your food intake may be needed.
Other genetic disorders caused by mutations limit the availability of energy substrates but do not necessarily cause seizures. One such disease is phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiency. PFK is the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis for the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Patients with mutations in the muscle isoform of PFK demonstrate exercise intolerance with myalgias and stiffness. There also are rare infantile forms, such as a case reported by Swoboda et al. [21, Class III], with myopathy and arthrogryposis. This patient displayed marked gains in muscle strength and improvement in his developmental milestones after being placed on the ketogenic diet.
In a model of PD, neurons cultured from the developing mesencephalon, the site of the future substantia nigra, are susceptible to injury and death from the application of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), which inhibits mitochondrial energy production. Adding one of the ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate, rescues these cells from death and reduction in neurite outgrowth [37]. In an in vivo model, mice treated with β-hydroxybutyrate via continuous subcutaneous infusion were relatively protected from the dopaminergic degeneration induced by injection of MPTP, an MPP+ precursor, apparently by enhancing oxidative phosphorylation and the production of ATP [38].

Fairly recently, the diet was introduced as a weight-loss diet by an Italian professor of surgery, Dr. Gianfranco Cappello of Sapienza University in Rome. In his 2012 study, about 19,000 dieters received a high-fat liquid diet via a feeding tube inserted down the nose. The study showed an average weight loss of more than 20 pounds in participants, most of whom kept it off for at least a year. The researchers reported a few minor side effects, like fatigue.
The story behind LDL, or low-density lipoprotein, is more complicated. LDL transports cholesterol produced by your liver and cells throughout your body. Unlike HDL, LDL molecules move slowly through the bloodstream and are vulnerable to oxidizing agents known as “free radicals.” Once oxidized, LDL can easily burrow itself into the walls of your arteries (called endothelium) and impede cardiovascular function. This triggers an inflammatory response in which white blood cells called macrophages rush to eat up the LDL.
I agree Dr. Seyfried has done us all a great service by redefining, re-emphasizing and refining Dr. Warburg’s remarkable research from 80 years ago. He makes the case, using the contemporary basic science data, to support Warburg’s belief that cancer cells depend solely on glycolysis for survival, with his claim regarding the uncoupling of this sugar-fueled, oxygen-independent process from the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. But he goes a major step further, stating as fact that since cancer cells depend on anaerobic glucose metabolism for energy, they can be stopped in their tracks by depriving them of blood glucose.
The theory of ketogenic diets for cancer does not rest on depriving the tumor of glucose since, as you say, blood glucose is regulated (not from fat, though — except for a small amount from glycerol and other minor exceptions, you can’t make glucose from fat). In addition many tumors will overexpress the glucose receptors. The logic rests with regulating insulin and providing alternative fuel as ketone bodies. Remember, glucose — really most nutrients — have control effects as well being fuels. So the goal is to repress the utilization of glucose by inhibition with derivatives of fat and ketone bodies (acetyl-CoA, for example).
Some practitioners have raised the concern that long-term adherence to a ketogenic diet may shift the composition of the microbiota (the beneficial microbes that live in our bodies) in an undesirable direction and may even encourage the overgrowth of ‘bad’ bacteria. These beneficial bacteria feed on prebiotics (such as fiber and resistant starch), both of which are likely to be low in a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. Without prebiotics, beneficial bacteria are not able to produce substances like butyrate and other short chain fatty acids that keep the intestinal cells healthy, and long-term disruption of the microbiota can lead to a host of health problems throughout the body. 57 58
The ketogenic diet has been shown to produce beneficial metabolic changes in the short-term. Along with weight loss, health parameters associated with carrying excess weight have improved, such as insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and elevated cholesterol and triglycerides. [2,7] There is also growing interest in the use of low-carbohydrate diets, including the ketogenic diet, for type 2 diabetes. Several theories exist as to why the ketogenic diet promotes weight loss, though they have not been consistently shown in research: [2,8,9]

May this letter find you and your loved ones happy and healthy for without you I would not be in such an improved state of physical health? It is not often I get to put pencil to paper for not only could I not concentrate due to opiate pharmaceuticals (couldn't express oneself due to lack of cognitive thinking) but the pain, inability to get comfortable due to lymphodemia and anxiety from stress (from lack of cash flow for food, bills, medicines plus the high expense of bandages & ointments) have prevented me from making contact but ....still after this prolonged period of time, I feel it necessary to write personally to mention just how dramatically you changed the world my two children and I live in. My sister Casey Lee Smith, arrived 6 months ago from the USA to run my household and it is through "Phoenix Tears" website she was able to make contact with you and learn all about the many wondrous benefits of medicinal Cannabis oil. When the treatment arrived, I was overwhelmed for I am a single Mother and your generosity brought tears to my eyes (even now it is hard to fight tears as I write) It has been rough to say the least. Feeling helpless, overly tired and frustrated by the lack of qualified physicians in my local town. I became depressed. My ex-husband felt he should prepare the kids for my untimely death. The location of my cancer spread throughout my left quadrant into my lymph and into the brain. I became bed ridden and lost hope. I will lose my house shortly but now i know it won't be my life. So, "THANK YOU" for the gracious gift and know you are loved! Sending love to you forever and always.
Usually the body uses glucose (a form of sugar) from carbohydrates (found in foods like sugar, bread or pasta) for its energy source. Chemicals called ketones are made when the body uses fat for energy (this is called ‘ketosis’). With the ketogenic diet, the body mostly uses ketones instead of glucose for its energy source. Research has shown that a particular fatty acid, decanoic acid, may be involved in the way the diet works. 
Once a child is considered a candidate for the diet, a screening evaluation by selected members of the team responsible for implementing the diet is initiated. This screening includes a comprehensive evaluation by the dietitians and nursing staff. The purpose of this evaluation is to educate the family and to assess their ability to maintain the diet. At the same time, the different types of meal plans and foods that the child can eat are discussed, along with their preparation. Children traditionally are fasted for 24 hours prior to the initiation of the diet, beginning after the dinner on the day prior to admission. Occasionally, medically complex children will not be fasted. There are many ketogenic diet centers now that do not fast children, and research indicates that there is no difference in efficacy between fasted and non-fasted children. However, a more rapid reduction of seizures often seen with earlier ketosis can lead to a quicker response . Evidence also suggests that fasting is not the same as the diet in terms of mechanism of action and so may be of additional help. The decision to fast should be individualized and also at the comfort level of the ketogenic diet team.
A survey in 2005 of 88 paediatric neurologists in the US found that 36% regularly prescribed the diet after three or more drugs had failed, 24% occasionally prescribed the diet as a last resort, 24% had only prescribed the diet in a few rare cases, and 16% had never prescribed the diet. Several possible explanations exist for this gap between evidence and clinical practice.[34] One major factor may be the lack of adequately trained dietitians, who are needed to administer a ketogenic diet programme.[31]
I have great respect for Harvard Medical School. I notice that they support their readers posting comments and I am most appreciative of the article and all the many thoughtful comments by the readers. The readers seem to have the most expertise here and I hope that the doctor who wrote the article will think long and hard about the comments by readers. After 35 years of clinical practice in mental health, I notice that all issues of emotion involve medical issues, nutrition, and the gut bacteria. I would say that these issues and all of the executive brain functions seem to improve with ketogenic principles. For those that apply it in a flexible and smart manner, it appears to improve every area of their lives. I strongly encourage the author of the article to take one class via The Institute for Functional Medicine. If he is open to more learning he can take more classes and get certified. I’m sure a fine doctor, he will be an even better doctor and personally healthier, if he gets more training. Are we all open to new learning(especially us healthcare providers)?
The ketogenic diet, or even just a higher-fat, low-carb diet, has now gained massive support as a modern-day healing strategy. In fact, our ideas about fats and cholesterol seem to have been almost completely reversed in recent years. That being said, many people see their cholesterol go up after beginning more of a ketogenic lifestyle. Some people get concerned when this happens, so in this article, I am going to address the phenomena of high cholesterol on a ketogenic diet.

The traditional Atkins’ Diet was certainly high fat, in the range of 70% or more, nearly all from animal sources, and with minimal dietary carbs, less than 10%. Dr. Atkins, famed for his all-encompassing emphasis on ketosis during his early years as a diet doctor, insisted his patients routinely check the levels of ketone bodies in their urine several times a day, using special “ketone strips.”

Jimmy Moore: Exactly. You’re already have a propensity for insulin resistance. It should not surprise you that as you get into this that you’re going to run into some of the manifestation of that, which is this thing called Don Phenomena, where in the morning you have a higher level of blood sugar, that’s totally normal. What tends to happen though, and certainly the people that have asked that question of you, I hope they’re testing later in the day as well. What you’ll see is later in the day, totally normal.
As individuals in general, we never hesitate to gorge on pounds of sugar with, before, and after every meal. Sugars and carbohydrates should rarely be included in our diets. One century ago, the average US citizen consumed 5 pounds of sugar per year; today, we consume an inconceivable average of 150 pounds per year. This becomes even more horrifying when we realize it only takes 100 grams of sugar to restrain our white blood cell’s ability to kill the bad cells in our body by 90% for several hours; this happens within 15 minutes of digestion. Founder of the American Anti-Cancer Institute (AACI), Bob Wright, adds, “One can of [soda] has enough sugar to shut down 50% of our immune system for a minimum of 4 hours.” When we consume sugar, we are simultaneously shutting off our defenses while pouring gasoline on the fire that is cancer. When we take into account that “50 to 70% of our total immune system cells cannot see cancer … even on our best day,” the notion of adding it to our diet seems even more blasphemous.
That plan didn’t allow much variety or leeway. Eggs, two small green salads a day, gelatin for dessert, cheese (up to 4 ounces daily), bone broth, no-calorie liquids, and lots of meat: That was pretty much it for the first week. After level one, you added vegetables like broccoli. Yes, you would be in ketosis doing the original Atkins diet, but for most people, that spartan plan would get boring quickly.
Chapter 6 continues with advice on customizing the diet, foods that are allowed or disallowed, meal preparation, and how to follow the diet when away from home, such as restaurant or travel dining. Chapter 7 presents a number of diverse topics of great practical importance especially to a cancer patient but seldom mentioned in popular diet books: alcohol consumption: how to handle incidental illnesses; sick days and menstrual cycles; stress; exercise; acidity and alkalinity; and vegetarianism. Finally there are 12 appendices that provide convenient worksheets and a wealth of advice and information that will save many telephone calls, and trips to the library or internet.
You’re transitioning. Your body is equipped to process a high intake of carbs and a lower intake of fat. Your body needs to create enzymes to be able to do this. In the transitional period, the brain may run low on energy which can lead to grogginess, nausea, and headaches. If you’re having a large problem with this, you can choose to reduce carb intake gradually.
Overall, cancer is a complex disease with many causes and contributors, but it is becoming less mysterious and more understandable as more research is done. Cancer can develop multiple traits that make it more and more resilient, but we also keep making more and more discoveries that provide us with clues as to how we can prevent, manage, and treat various types of cancer — even those that are the most sinister.
The weight and body mass index of the patients decreased significantly (P<0.0001). The level of total cholesterol decreased from week 1 to week 24. HDL cholesterol levels significantly increased, whereas LDL cholesterol levels significantly decreased after treatment. The level of triglycerides decreased significantly following 24 weeks of treatment. The level of blood glucose significantly decreased. The changes in the level of urea and creatinine were not statistically significant.
The mainstay of treatment for epilepsy is pharmaceutical intervention. As I recently noted, more and more we are seeing surgical procedures being performed for those individuals who have not had a significant improvement with drugs. I indicated that at least some individuals are gluten sensitive and may benefit from a gluten-free diet which potentially could keep them from undergoing potentially life-threatening surgery as a treatment for their epilepsy.
Dousing your steak with butter, swigging MCT oil out of the bottle, and putting grass-fed butter and MCT oil into your coffee may be more fat that your body can handle, actually leading to the opposite effect than intended—inflammation. Even on a high-fat diet, too much dietary fat can—and often will—stall fat loss. Dial down that excess dietary fat and include more fiber-rich vegetables, berries, legumes, and non-gluten grains for a healthier, more diverse gut microbiome to keep your weight within a healthy range.

The ketogenic diet is calculated by a dietitian for each child. Age, weight, activity levels, culture, and food preferences all affect the meal plan. First, the energy requirements are set at 80–90% of the recommended daily amounts (RDA) for the child's age (the high-fat diet requires less energy to process than a typical high-carbohydrate diet). Highly active children or those with muscle spasticity require more food energy than this; immobile children require less. The ketogenic ratio of the diet compares the weight of fat to the combined weight of carbohydrate and protein. This is typically 4:1, but children who are younger than 18 months, older than 12 years, or who are obese may be started on a 3:1 ratio. Fat is energy-rich, with 9 kcal/g (38 kJ/g) compared to 4 kcal/g (17 kJ/g) for carbohydrate or protein, so portions on the ketogenic diet are smaller than normal. The quantity of fat in the diet can be calculated from the overall energy requirements and the chosen ketogenic ratio. Next, the protein levels are set to allow for growth and body maintenance, and are around 1 g protein for each kg of body weight. Lastly, the amount of carbohydrate is set according to what allowance is left while maintaining the chosen ratio. Any carbohydrate in medications or supplements must be subtracted from this allowance. The total daily amount of fat, protein, and carbohydrate is then evenly divided across the meals.[37]
A ketogenic diet derives approximately 90% of dietary calories from fat, 8% from protein, and just 2% from carbohydrates.1 In comparison, the standard American diet derives 35%, 15%, and 50% of calories from fat, protein, and carbohydrates, respectively. Although it is rising in popularity, the ketogenic diet is not a new dietary intervention. It is an established nutritional treatment approach — first developed in the 1920s — for patients who have epilepsy that is not well controlled with antiepileptic agents. The keto diet later remerged as an acceptable intervention in the 1990s.
Our regimen is a modification of the classic ketogenic diet, similar to the Atkins diet. Recent studies have shown that this modified Atkins diet lowers seizure rates in nearly half of adults that try it, usually within a few months. Unlike the ketogenic diet for children, this therapy does not require a hospital stay, an initial fasting period, food weighing, fluid measuring, or calorie counting.

The ketogenic diet (also known as the "keto diet") is a high fat, low carbohydrate, and "just enough" protein for growth and maintenance diet. Typically, it follows a ratio of 3-4 grams of fat for every 1 gram of carbohydrate and protein. This means that about 90% of the calories come from fat, requiring those on the diet to eat mostly fatty foods such as butter and cream. Although it may sound terrible, there are many creative recipes that make this a tasty approach. What distinguishes the traditional ketogenic diet from the modified-Atkins diet is the rigorous attention to food intake and limitation on total calories.
In fact, one study stated that “…the group with the highest risk for cardiovascular events had high LDL-P and LDL-C, while the group with the lowest risk had low LDL-P but higher LDL-C.” [17] As a result of prior clinical research and their findings, the researchers stated that: “While the low carb, ketogenic diet did not lower total LDL cholesterol, it did result in a shift from small, dense LDL to large, buoyant LDL, which could lower cardiovascular disease risk.” [23]
Jimmy Moore: Saturated fats are like butter and coconut oil, there’s actually more saturated fat in coconut oil than butter. People don’t realize that coconut oil is like 90% saturated fat, whereas butter something like 60 something. Full fat meats and cheeses, full fat dairy, real food of course is what we’re talking about here. Don’t just read labels on boxes, “Oh Jimmy said.” So, no.

Of course, there are plenty of cancer therapies that are effective and non-toxic, but they are not covered by insurance companies in the U.S., and most of them are not approved by the FDA, so one must go south of the border into Mexico or travel to another country to receive the best non-toxic cancer therapies. (See: Cancer – The Forbidden Cures and Why Medicine Won’t Allow Cancer to Be Cured)
Calorie restriction, while more difficult than intermittent fasting for some, has shown promising results in preventing and starving cancer for the same reasons as intermittent fasting. Basically, calorie restriction will cause cancer to run itself out of fuel because of its constant need for glucose and lack of metabolic flexibility. Once that happens, the cancer may begin to starve and die off.
A more recent clinical trial comparing a ketogenic diet (33.5% protein, 56% fat, 9.6% carbohydrate) to a low-fat diet (22% protein, 25% fat,55.7% carbohydrate) among 55 obese adults, showed that the ketogenic diet resulted in improved cholesterol levels compared to the low-fat diet. More specifically, the group following the ketogenic diet reported higher increases in HDL cholesterol and higher decreases in triglyceride levels compared to the control group (15).
It seems to me that your’re presenting conflicting information. Your series had T. Colin Campbell and his research from the China Study. And the healing benefits of a plant based diet. Animal protein causes inflammation. Is there specific science on the ketogenic diet? I know people doing keto long term and they look awful and seem to be sick all the time. I have heard of the keto flu.
Dietary treatments for diseases have probably been used for over 2000 years (Yuen and Sander, 2014). Fasting is the only therapeutic measure against epilepsy recorded in the Hippocratic collection. Two Parisian physicians, G Guelpa, and A Marie, recorded the first modern use of starvation as a treatment for epilepsy in 1911 (Wheless, 2008). The modern use of this form of therapy began in the early 1920s (Lima et al., 2014; Yuen and Sander, 2014), when Drs. Stanley Cobb and W.G. Lennox of Harvard at Harvard Medical School observed the effects of starvation as a treatment for epilepsy, noting that seizure improvement typically occurred after 2–3 days (Wheless, 2008). In the same period, Dr. Russel M. Wilder a physician at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, suggested that a specific diet could produce similar benefits to fasting, and proposed a diet that produced ketonemia. He studied a series of patients with epilepsy and demonstrated a result equivalent to fasting and that was maintained for a much longer period. This new concept of diet was designated the “KD.” Peterman, also at the Mayo Clinic, described a composition of the KD similar to that used today (Wilder, 1921).
My Husband and I started doing Keto July 2018. We got over weight after we got out of the Marine Corps. It has been hard to workout because I became disabled, but my diet was not good. After our friend Amber recommended your site and support group, we found a lot of helpful information to get us started on a successful journey. So far it’s been one month and we have lost 18 pounds each!

In conclusion, all the mechanisms described above lead to systemic modifications and a dynamic metabolic homeostasis, in which the interplay among KB, glucose levels, mitochondrial function, synaptic neurotransmitters, and channel modifications can lead to changes in the seizure threshold and hyperexcitability. These changes contribute to the final antiseizure mechanism of KD.
Leanne: Yeah, that believed in coconut from the very beginning and they didn’t go on this campaign of ridding it from the earth. I’m totally pro coconut oil and saturated fat. It’s been so great chatting with you about this cholesterol piece. I hope that a lot of our listeners, watchers, readers are going to benefit from the information that you’ve shared. If they want to know more about you Cholesterol Clarity is awesome. Keto Clarity is great. Your podcast, just download every single podcast Jimmy’s ever made. It will keep you busy for the next two years.
A side benefit of the diet is that many parents say their children are more alert and make more progress when on the diet, even if seizures continue. If the diet seems to be helping, doctors will usually prescribe it for about two years. Then, they may suggest that parents slowly begin including regular food in the child’s diet to see if the seizures can still be controlled, even with a normal diet.
A ketogenic diet may be an option for some people who have had difficulty losing weight with other methods.  The exact ratio of fat, carbohydrate, and protein that is needed to achieve health benefits will vary among individuals due to their genetic makeup and body composition. Therefore, if one chooses to start a ketogenic diet, it is recommended to consult with one’s physician and a dietitian to closely monitor any biochemical changes after starting the regimen, and to create a meal plan that is tailored to one’s existing health conditions and to prevent nutritional deficiencies or other health complications. A dietitian may also provide guidance on reintroducing carbohydrates once weight loss is achieved.

It seems to me that your’re presenting conflicting information. Your series had T. Colin Campbell and his research from the China Study. And the healing benefits of a plant based diet. Animal protein causes inflammation. Is there specific science on the ketogenic diet? I know people doing keto long term and they look awful and seem to be sick all the time. I have heard of the keto flu.
A ketogenic diet differs dramatically from the carbohydrate-heavy Standard American Diet. When you eat a carbohydrate-rich meal, the ingested carbs are broken down into glucose. Glucose is then shuttled into cells by insulin, where it is used for energy production. The constant consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet causes the body to rely on glucose (sugar) for fuel, while rarely tapping into fat stores for energy. A ketogenic diet does just the opposite. It forces the body to turn to fats for fuel. A keto diet encourages the production of ketones, small water-soluble compounds, and the “burning” of fatty acids in adipose tissue (fat cells) for energy. Ketones are unique in that they are rapidly taken up by tissues and broken down to yield ATP, the primary energy currency of the human body. The process by which the body switches to using ketones for energy is referred to as “nutritional ketosis,” while the process of tapping into your body’s fat stores is termed “fat adaptation.”
The day before admission to hospital, the proportion of carbohydrate in the diet may be decreased and the patient begins fasting after his or her evening meal.[19] On admission, only calorie- and caffeine-free fluids[37] are allowed until dinner, which consists of "eggnog"[Note 8] restricted to one-third of the typical calories for a meal. The following breakfast and lunch are similar, and on the second day, the "eggnog" dinner is increased to two-thirds of a typical meal's caloric content. By the third day, dinner contains the full calorie quota and is a standard ketogenic meal (not "eggnog"). After a ketogenic breakfast on the fourth day, the patient is discharged. Where possible, the patient's current medicines are changed to carbohydrate-free formulations.[19]
In the absence of glucose, which is normally used by cells as a quick source of energy, the body starts to burn fat and produces ketone bodies instead (it’s why the keto diet is often referred to as the ketone diet). Once ketone levels in the blood rise to a certain point, you enter into a state of ketosis — which usually results in quick and consistent weight loss until you reach a healthy, stable body weight. See this keto diet review, a before and after trying keto for 30 days.
The ketogenic diet is consistently reduced in carbohydrates, adequate in protein, and high in fat which mimics this fasting state and also produce ketones. Ketones are an indicator of an important metabolic change but alone cannot explain the anti-seizure effect. Researchers are studying additional mechanisms of action to better explain why this diet reduces seizures.
Salad mixes, fermented things like sauerkraut and kimchi, unsweetened yogurt, unsweetened coconut yogurt, coconut oil, cultured cottage cheese and cultured sour cream. I am not eating meat or carbs except what is present in some vegetable juices. I started exercising a little and hot baths, having less pain and feeling like I have control over symptoms. Of course using some supplements. For me, dessert will be surviving long enough to see old friends and make new ones.
One way to tell if the keto diet may not be ideal for you is if your total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio is above 4 and/or your LDL-P remain high or increase after starting the keto diet. If this is the case for you, then it may indicate that you have a particular condition that requires you to make adjustments to your keto diet or follow a completely different diet altogehter. [27]

Tony, I'm not sure how you were only eating 20 grams of fat on a keto diet; in fact, if this is true, that may be the reason. A keto diet should provide a minimum of 70 grams of fat daily, but generally 100+ grams for most people, especially men. Be sure to include nuts, olive oil, avocados, fatty fish, and other healthy sources of fat in your diet on a daily basis in order to prevent problems. - Franziska
The diet seems to work for more than one kind of seizure, and for children who have a lot of seizures or few seizures. But most doctors say it shouldn’t be used instead of medications if the drugs are working and the child is not having bad side effects. Parents generally decide to try the diet because they hope it will give their child a better chance for a normal life.
The ketogenic diet is calculated by a dietitian for each child. Age, weight, activity levels, culture, and food preferences all affect the meal plan. First, the energy requirements are set at 80–90% of the recommended daily amounts (RDA) for the child's age (the high-fat diet requires less energy to process than a typical high-carbohydrate diet). Highly active children or those with muscle spasticity require more food energy than this; immobile children require less. The ketogenic ratio of the diet compares the weight of fat to the combined weight of carbohydrate and protein. This is typically 4:1, but children who are younger than 18 months, older than 12 years, or who are obese may be started on a 3:1 ratio. Fat is energy-rich, with 9 kcal/g (38 kJ/g) compared to 4 kcal/g (17 kJ/g) for carbohydrate or protein, so portions on the ketogenic diet are smaller than normal. The quantity of fat in the diet can be calculated from the overall energy requirements and the chosen ketogenic ratio. Next, the protein levels are set to allow for growth and body maintenance, and are around 1 g protein for each kg of body weight. Lastly, the amount of carbohydrate is set according to what allowance is left while maintaining the chosen ratio. Any carbohydrate in medications or supplements must be subtracted from this allowance. The total daily amount of fat, protein, and carbohydrate is then evenly divided across the meals.[37]
Jimmy Moore: Yes, so it’s a spiral effect. It’s not necessarily the high triglycerides, but the high triglycerides definitely is an indication you’re not eating something correctly that might be causing those issues. One other thing about the diet we hadn’t talked about that I thinks really important needs to come out is protein. When you’re eating protein in excess, it can act just like carbohydrate in the body, which would show up in your triglycerides, would show up on your blood sugar and your fasting insulin levels. That’s important too. Sometimes Leanne, they’ve heard you talk about low carb, high fat, okay great. I’m going to have green beans and I’m going to have a chicken breast and then I’m going to put half of a table spoon of butter, man that is so high fat. I’m going to do so good and then they wonder an hour and a half later, “Why am I so hungry?”
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) just put out a position paper on treating diabetes. It’s focus on treatment and prevention, especially for the increasing incidents of diabetes 2 among youth, demonstrates the willful ignorance of institutions that create medical standards for the medical profession. What is ignored is the potential for treating obesity and diabetes 2 with the high-fat low-carb ketogenic diet, which has proven effective for all the factors leading to diabetes and diabetes 2 itself, even improving the overall health of those afflicted with diabetes 1, the less frequent form of diabetes that requires insulin injections.
With renewed use of the ketogenic diet has come heightened interest in its potential use for other conditions (Table 1). Over the past few years, there has been an explosion in speculation about the diet’s potential applications in a variety of metabolic, oncologic, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders. This review examines data supporting the potential use of the ketogenic diet in each disorder and considers potential mechanisms of action in each disorder, using these data to shed light on the diet’s disease-modifying effects. Both the human and animal studies discussed used standard ketogenic diets unless otherwise specified.
I’ve been Keto for over a year now. I’ve lost 60 lbs. I’m off Metformin for type 2 diabetic and my LDL has improved significantly. In my experience, Keto will show some quick results in some but for others it will take longer. It depends on how long you’ve been on the standard American diet. It will take time for your body to fix “self-heal”. Not everyone will have the same results in the same amount of time.
Some children with epilepsy can have disabling seizures―up to hundreds per day―which can severely limit their quality of life and prevent them from participating in school and social activities. Seizure control is the first step in helping kids with epilepsy achieve otherwise normal lives. When medication isn't working and/or the side effects from it are too much to bear, the ketogenic diet might be offered as a treatment option. In fact, the statistics show that it is often more effective than another, new medication, and frequently also improves alertness and behavior.
It is important to emphasize, however, that the ketogenic diet had a variable response. Some patients were able to comply with it better than other patients were. Additionally, of those that completed the trial, some had changes that are more favorable in certain parameters such as CRP. This suggests that the ketogenic diet is not suitable for everyone.

At the time I finished my monograph in 1986, I hoped that with its publication, fair-minded researchers might begin taking Dr. Kelley and his nutritional therapy seriously. As I was to learn, I completely and rather naively misjudged the animus of the scientific community toward unconventional cancer treatment approaches that didn’t fit the “accepted” model. Even with Dr. Good’s support, after two years of trying I could not get the book published, either in its entirety, or in the form of individual case reports appropriate for the conventional medical journals.


I have been on keto for past 7 months. Triglycerides improved from 117 to 86 and HDL from 53 to 55, VLDL from 23 to 17 compared to last year. My problem is, LDL has been increasing by an average of 20 points every year for past 5 years, it was 130 in 2014, My metabolic panel is normal. Below is my lipid panel done a couple of days ago. Could you please advise me on how to improve my LDL level?

Having tempting, unhealthy foods in your home is one of the biggest reasons for failure when starting any diet. To maximize your chances of success with the keto diet, you need to remove as many triggers as you can. This crucial step will help prevent moments of weakness from ruining all your hard work.If you aren’t living alone, make sure to discuss with your family or housemates before throwing anything out. If some items are simply not yours to throw out, try to compromise and agree on a special location so you can keep them out of sight.
PD is a neurodegenerative condition in which the impairment of mitochondrial complex I activity is hypothesized to play a role in the death of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. Various investigators have hypothesized that ketones could bypass complex I to provide an alternative fuel source for neurons at risk. Alternatively, ketone bodies may enhance mitochondrial function and thus ATP production, thereby protecting cells against various insults that demand high levels of usable energy.
During that first meeting, Kelley described in some detail the tenets of his therapy. In summary, it involved three basic components: individualized diet, individualized supplement programs with large doses of pancreatic enzymes Kelley believed had an anti-cancer effect, and detoxification routines such as the coffee enemas. He fervently believed that each patient required a protocol designed for his or her particular metabolic, physiologic, and biochemical needs, and that one diet would never be suitable for all.
A number of patients previously refractory to multiple anticonvulsant medications become seizure-free or maintain a significant reduction in seizure frequency even after the ketogenic diet has been discontinued, suggesting the diet may have disease-modifying effects in some people with epilepsy [19,20•, Class III]. No clinical factors have been identified that predict which patients will benefit most in this regard.
Though most of our cells can utilize fatty acids of all stripes via beta oxidation to create ATP energy, our central nervous system is at somewhat of a disadvantage. In fact, long chain fatty acids with 14 or more carbons, which can yield the most ATP from beta oxidation, do not cross the blood-brain barrier. However, in a state of prolonged dietary carbohydrate depletion, the liver begins converting acetyl coenzyme A into various ketone bodies, such as acetoacetate and beta hydroxy butyric acid, which easily penetrate into the brain and which can, like acetyl coenzyme A, be shunted into the citric acid cycle and then the electron transport chain, providing the brain with ATP.
Leanne: Even a lot of my friends who went to the dietetics route, as oppose to the holistic nutrition route, we both were taught the exact same thing when it came to protein. Even my physio and my naturopath, there’s been a lot of misconception about protein. Getting back to the cholesterol and heart disease, if somebody has a history of heart disease in their family and they want to try eating high fat, low carbohydrate, keto … awesome. What you’re saying is perhaps for those types of people, look at your inflammation. Get that under control, while you do the high fat, low carb, keto thing and you’re actually doing your body a major service by switching to that eating style, especially if you have a history of heart disease in your family.
There have been a few studies of the modified Atkins Diet in adults with seizure disorders, and the results are similar to studies with children. Interestingly, it was remarked in one of the reports that it was more difficult to keep adults on the diet since they obviously have more control over what they eat. Research is still limited in this area and more trials are needed.
It was late 1985 when the media broke the story about the next cancer miracle. I was sitting in my apartment overlooking beautiful Tampa Bay, when I read the initial front-page newspaper reports. Dr. Steven Rosenberg, already well-known as Ronald Reagan’s surgeon (the President had a malignant polyp), and a highly regarded basic science researcher running a section at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, had just revealed to the world – at a press conference, as I remember – his preliminary pilot study results with a new immune modulator, interleukin-2, that would provoke an extraordinary media frenzy.
This is where we have to depart! Sorry to say but you’re on your own. You should have plenty of leftovers that are frozen, ready, and waiting! I know a lot of you out there have trouble with timing and are busy people – so making sure that some nights you make extras to freeze is important. All those leftovers you have in the freezer? Use them up! Create your own meal plan, at first using this as a guide, and then completely doing it yourself. Once you get the hang of it, it’ll be a sinch – I promise you 🙂
Treatment with MAD was shown to be more effective in seizure control when the MAD was started with lower carbohydrate limits (Kossoff et al., 2010). In a randomized study with 20 children with drug-resistant epilepsy, 60% of them showed fewer seizures in the first 3 months on the MAD, with 10 g/day of carbohydrate intake against 10% of reduction with 20 g/day (p = 0.03). In the same study, after 3 months, an increase in carbohydrate intake to 20 g/day, maintained seizure control and improved tolerability, suggesting that a lower carbohydrate limit is important only in the first 3 months (Kossoff et al., 2007; Kossoff and Dorward, 2008).
In 2012, Dr. Thomas Seyfried, a PhD basic science researcher, published the book, Cancer as a Metabolic Disease, announcing to the world that a high-fat, no carbohydrate ketogenic diet represents the solution to cancer prevention as well as to cancer treatment. His monograph has been greeted with much acclaim, though not yet at the level reached at the height of the interleukin-2 hysteria in 1985.
Mitochondria generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their metabolic activities. In normal cells, the production of ROS and their elimination by antioxidants are kept in balance.10 Intriguingly, a higher incidence of errors, or mutations, in mitochondrial DNA have been observed in many human cancers, likely as a result of uncontrolled ROS production and oxidative stress.11
In addition to sodium, levels of magnesium and potassium can also drop on a ketogenic diet due to its dehydrating effect on the body. Make sure to eat plenty of magnesium- and potassium-rich foods. Some of the best keto-friendly sources of magnesium are dark leafy greens, nuts and seeds, and cacao. Keto-friendly potassium sources include spinach, kale, avocados, and mushrooms.

As you’ve looked into the keto diet, you’ve probably read that sugar is our primary fuel source, and this is true — but cancer cells handle glucose a bit differently. At rest, for example, our healthy cells will not produce lactic acid. Conversely, cancer cells have such an issue with normal energy metabolism that it essentially can only burn glucose in a way that produces lactic acid. By producing energy in this way, the cell will become more and more cancerous as it makes itself vulnerable to further mutations without any hope of repair.
Once a child is considered a candidate for the diet, a screening evaluation by selected members of the team responsible for implementing the diet is initiated. This screening includes a comprehensive evaluation by the dietitians and nursing staff. The purpose of this evaluation is to educate the family and to assess their ability to maintain the diet. At the same time, the different types of meal plans and foods that the child can eat are discussed, along with their preparation. Children traditionally are fasted for 24 hours prior to the initiation of the diet, beginning after the dinner on the day prior to admission. Occasionally, medically complex children will not be fasted. There are many ketogenic diet centers now that do not fast children, and research indicates that there is no difference in efficacy between fasted and non-fasted children. However, a more rapid reduction of seizures often seen with earlier ketosis can lead to a quicker response . Evidence also suggests that fasting is not the same as the diet in terms of mechanism of action and so may be of additional help. The decision to fast should be individualized and also at the comfort level of the ketogenic diet team.
There is a lot I could respond to here, I’m a little surprised that you would include a study that feeds pregnant and lactating mice a diet (Teklad diet no. TD.96355) consisting of almost entirely hydrogenated vegetable shortening (Crisco), and also casein and corn oil, and calls it a “ketogenic diet.” On top of the fact that it’s a mice study. There is no evidence to show that there is any danger in pregnant and lactating women eating a (real) ketogenic diet. The only issue is that if a lactating woman switches from SAD to keto, “keto flu” may reduce her milk supply.

Fortunately, patients have an alternative—a ketogenic diet. Research indicates that a ketogenic diet improves multiple aspects of metabolic syndrome, inducing significant reductions in body fat percentage, BMI, hemoglobin A1c levels, blood lipids, and blood pressure. (10, 11, 12) The ketogenic diet produces these beneficial effects by reversing the pathological processes underlying metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance and chronic inflammation.

The ketogenic diet is calculated by a dietitian for each child. Age, weight, activity levels, culture, and food preferences all affect the meal plan. First, the energy requirements are set at 80–90% of the recommended daily amounts (RDA) for the child's age (the high-fat diet requires less energy to process than a typical high-carbohydrate diet). Highly active children or those with muscle spasticity require more food energy than this; immobile children require less. The ketogenic ratio of the diet compares the weight of fat to the combined weight of carbohydrate and protein. This is typically 4:1, but children who are younger than 18 months, older than 12 years, or who are obese may be started on a 3:1 ratio. Fat is energy-rich, with 9 kcal/g (38 kJ/g) compared to 4 kcal/g (17 kJ/g) for carbohydrate or protein, so portions on the ketogenic diet are smaller than normal. The quantity of fat in the diet can be calculated from the overall energy requirements and the chosen ketogenic ratio. Next, the protein levels are set to allow for growth and body maintenance, and are around 1 g protein for each kg of body weight. Lastly, the amount of carbohydrate is set according to what allowance is left while maintaining the chosen ratio. Any carbohydrate in medications or supplements must be subtracted from this allowance. The total daily amount of fat, protein, and carbohydrate is then evenly divided across the meals.[37]
A randomised, controlled clinical trial among 120 overweight adults with high levels of cholesterol compared the effects of a ketogenic diet against a low-fat diet. After 24 weeks, the group following the keto diet reported greater weight loss and declines in the triglyceride levels and higher increases in the HDL cholesterol levels compared to the low-fat group (11).

Hi Stacey, I can’t give medical advice and definitely recommend following your doctor’s recommendations. You can ask him/her if low carb would be better suited for you. Also, you may want to double check with him/her if the kidney concern was related to high protein, because that is a common misconception about keto – it is not a high protein diet/lifestyle.
They included participants who were 35-75 years of age and who were not born in Canada but had lived there for at least 5 years. Subjects who suffered from moderate to severe medical conditions such as diabetes, heart diseases, and active cancer were not included. Subjects of all different weights and BMIs were included as long as they were considered healthy.

If you have chronic inflammation and/or stress, you may also have persisting high cholesterol levels which, in most cases, isn’t doing anything but causing more problems. The preponderance of this chronic inflammation and stress is typically caused by a variety of lifestyle factors, from eating foods that trigger inflammation to sleeping poorly. [27]

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